Detection of Deceit
Personally, I have grave reservations about so-called lie detector tests.
-- Secretary of State George Shultz,
December 20, 1985
Faced with the importance of knowing when someone is lying and recognizing the fallibility of humans as lie detectors, people have, through the ages, sought external means to determine the presence of deceit. In recent years, the polygraph has been used for that purpose. The extensive use of this device to monitor the honesty of employees, governmental officials, and criminals (among others) has been notably controversial.
Efforts to detect deception undoubtedly extend back to the first interactions among humans. One of the first recorded incidents is in the biblical story of two women who each claimed a baby as her own. They appeared before King Solomon, who, to resolve the con