The Columbian Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine, Embracing Literature in Every Department: Embellished with the Finest Steel and Mezzotint Engravings, Music and Colored Fashions. (Half title and running head: The Columbian Magazine.)
January 1844-February 1849. Monthly. vols. 1-8, regular semiannual volumes; vol. 9, 1848, 12 numbers; vol. 10, January and February 1849, incomplete in two numbers.
Israel Post, New York, 1844-1846; Ormsby and Jackett, New York, 1847; John S. Taylor, New York, 1848; Darius Mead, New York, 1849.
John Inman, 1844; John Inman and Robert A. West, 1845-April 1848; Stephen M. Chester , May-December 1848; Darius Mead, 1849.
COMMERCIAL REVIEW. See DEBOW'S REVIEW
While the movement to establish protection for consumers is thought to be a phenomenon of the twentieth century, consumers, producers, and government authorities have attempted to protect buyers from deception and fraud for thousands of years. Roman emperors, for example, tried to govern trade practices in their grain markets; medieval guilds established standards for quality; Napoleonic health councils devised tests to measure the purity of wine and medicine and the nutritional value of bread. 1 In the United States, nineteenth-century authors including Catherine Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote about the need for consumers to gain greater control over their increasing purchases of store-bought goods. As large companies began to recognize their need to evaluate the quality of raw materials supplied to them, many established laboratories to increase their oversight in this area. 2 These private initiatives paralleled the federal government's establishment of the National Bureau of Standards early in this century to test the quality of government-bought goods. This oversight by government and industry had little impact on private citizens: most consumers trusted brand names or endorsements like the Good Housekeeping Seal of Approval (begun in 1912). 3 This confidence in brand names was shaken by the work of Upton Sinclair, Lincoln Steffens, and other muckrakers; Sinclair deplored the conditions of the meat and dairy industries and the others also pointed