The Psychology of Expertise: Cognitive Research and Empirical AI

By Robert R. Hoffman | Go to book overview

Clearly, there are benefits for knowing what someone will do with certain knowledge. For instance, if one knows that a process control operator's model of a system is different (in some ways) from a troubleshooter's model of a system, training regimens can be designed to accommodate and support their respective tasks. Knowledge about information deemed important by users can also be directed toward effective training sessions and user guides.

If our theoretical assumptions are supported, early user-system interaction should be characterized by the user's relying on superficial features of the system. Perhaps the user will spend most of his or her time attempting to recognize and operate these features of the new system. With some experience, however (and this can be simulated), the user should no longer be concentrating on these surface features. In fact, the superficial features become irrelevant during interaction with the system. The interface should provide more than one interaction "mode" so that important relational features are now easily accessible and clearly displayed. The number of adapting modes is an empirical question and could also be simulated using the theory. Finally, knowing the kinds of features important in user models of a system could help the user interface designer in providing useful associations and analogies to the user. As Halasz and Moran ( 1982) argue, providing the user with a conceptual model can be productive for learning. In order to determine which associations and analogies might be deemed most useful, theoretical simulations could be run and then matched with usability data later.

Knowing the kinds of models people have or will generate gives system designers and human factors practitioners the leverage to design better systems for those models. Knowing the level of expertise a particular user has will be important as more intelligent user interfaces are designed, for example, for expert systems. A quantitative theory of mental model acquisition and maintenance, as discussed above, could prove beneficial in designing flexible interface communication that adapts to the user as his or her interactions with the system give way to different levels of system understanding.


Notes
1.
It is usually argued at this point that the procedural group might form a model too. Yes, that is undoubtedly the case, given the ongoing discussion. However, the hypothesis of the experiment is that the model group will have a better model than the procedural group.
2.
One of the best recent books for presentation of how-it-works knowledge for a wide variety of machines is by Macauley ( 1988).
3.
The typewriter/text-editor analogy is not a particularly good or powerful one by most accounts (e.g., Gentner, 1983, 1989). The reason is that the base concept (or the well-known concept, the typewriter) is not very rich relative to the target term. Thus, few sophisticated predictions can be made by borrowing this mental model. Furthermore, the fact that this association is quite often made simply reflects the fact that domains that share many features are likely to be those that are compared, even (and perhaps especially) those that share many superficial features (e.g., Gentner & Landers, 1985).
4.
UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Information Systems.
5.
Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.

References

Anderson J. R. ( 1987). "Skill acquisition: Compilation of weak-method problem solutions". Psychological Review, 94, 192-210.

Ashby W. R. ( 1956). Introduction to cybernetics. London: Chapman and Hall.

Bainbridge L. ( 1979). "Verbal reports as evidence of the process operator's knowledge". International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 11, 411-436.

Bainbridge L. ( 1981). "Mathematical equations or processing routines". In J. Rasmussen & W. B. Rouse (Eds.), Human detection and diagnosis of system failures (pp. 259-286). New York: Plenum.

Bainbridge L. ( 1986). "Asking questions and accessing knowledge". Future Computing Systems, 1, 143-149.

Barnett B. ( 1989). Information processing components and structural knowledge representations in pilots' judgments. Unpublished doctoral dis

-76-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Psychology of Expertise: Cognitive Research and Empirical AI
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 395

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.