The Birth of the Middle Ages, 395-814

By H. St. L. B. Moss | Go to book overview
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1. Peace and unity of civilized Europe --inter-provincial trade--commerce with Asia--causes of uniformity in the Roman world--contrast between East and West--dangers to the Empire--economic crisis--reforms of Diocletian-- Christianity and paganism
2. East and West fall apart after death of Theodosius --but Empire still one and indivisible--importance of this conception--Constantinople the real centre--decline of Rome14
3. Frontiers in 395 --Britain and the Saxon invasions--the Rhine frontier-Gaul--the Danube region--Armenia and the Euphrates line--Africa16
4. The army --changes during fourth century--organization, arms, tactics--superiority to barbarian troops disappears-- growth of personal retainers--barbarian character of army 19
5. Constitutional position of Emperor --dynastic principle-- checks on absolutism--administrative centralization-- corruption of governing machine--the Senate--ordo senatorius--stabilization of currency and prices--taxation 21
6. Lower classes --coloni--land-system--peasant risings--trade and industry--collegia26
7. Middle classes --city life--curiales--extinction of curiai class 28
8. Upper classes --life in country houses--growth of 'house- economy'--differing local conditions--luxury and display 29
9. Outlook of the age --archaism in literature--rhetoric-- Christian poetry--transitional character of period 31
10. The Church --political and racial basis of ecclesiastical rivalries--unity as aim of Imperial policy--doctrinal issues --Arianism, Sabellianism in fourth century--contest of Alexandria and Constantinople in fifth century--rise of monasticism--secular power of Church 33
1. Sketch of invasions --local and intermittent barbarian pressure on Roman frontiers--crisis of mid-fourth century --break-up of Western provinces 38
2. Early Germany --Baltic settlements--West Germans--East Germans--Teutonic outlook and institutions--gau, hundred--folkmoot, chiefs--army, methods of fighting--social classes--numbers of the invaders 39


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