The Birth of the Middle Ages, 395-814

By H. St. L. B. Moss | Go to book overview

VI
JUSTINIAN AND THE EAST

IN the West Justinian had pursued an offensive policy; in the East his aims are deliberately defensive. Stability on the frontiers was to be maintained by immense systems of walls and fortresses; if other means failed, the barbarian must be bought off. Stability inside the Empire was to be secured by administrative reform; besides lessening the chances of disorder, this would, by increasing the prosperity of the inhabitants, and by improving the fiscal machinery, guarantee for Justinian his all-important revenues. It was not that he deliberately sacrificed the welfare of his subjects to his own financial needs; in his philosophy, ruler and people had equal duties to the Empire of which they formed a part--his to conquer, theirs to enable him to do so by paying cheerfully the taxes demanded of them.

In two great ordinances of A.D. 535 Justinian began his work of reform. Detailed instructions were given for the arrangements of each separate province; only the leading principles can be mentioned here. One of the chief abuses consisted of the excessive fees (suffragia), amounting really to premiums, which officials had to pay for obtaining their posts; as a result, they were driven to recoup themselves by extortion and dishonesty of all kinds, and from the great ministers of the capital down to the humblest police and soldiers of the provinces the whole administration was riddled with corrupt practices. Crowds of petitioners flocked to Constantinople; the central officers could not get reliable information about the provincial governments, and the officials, if brought to book, pleaded the exigencies of the suffragia as their excuse. This excuse was now removed; in future, only light fees were to be paid on entering office. Rigorous orders were given for the cleansing of the administration. The governors are to have 'pure hands'--the phrase runs like a leit-motif through all the ordinances. They are to render equitable justice, to protect their subjects from the violence of the military or the exactions of subordinate officials; to hold the balance between rich and poor, to respect equally the rights of Church and State. But

-108-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Birth of the Middle Ages, 395-814
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents ix
  • Description of Illustrations xvi
  • Part I- Romans and Barbarians 1
  • I- The Roman World 1
  • II- The Barbarian World 38
  • III- The Clash of Cultures 57
  • Part II- The Triumph of Justinian 79
  • IV- Constantinople *
  • V- Justinian and the West 95
  • VI- Justinian and the East 108
  • VII- The Aftermath 125
  • Part III- The Onslaught of Islam 143
  • VIII- The Faith 143
  • IX- The Conquest 149
  • X- The Culture 159
  • Part IV- The Age of Charlemagne 175
  • XI- The European Background 175
  • XII- The Franks 193
  • XIII- The Papacy 222
  • Appendix A 266
  • Appendix B 270
  • Chronological Table 275
  • Bibliography 283
  • Index 288
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 294

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.