Automation Technology and Human Performance: Current Research and Trends

By Mark W. Scerbo | Go to book overview

Adaptive Aiding and Adaptive Task Allocation Enhance Human-Machine Interaction

Raja Parasuraman Catholic University of America, Washington DC

Mustapha Mouloua University of Central Florida, Orlando

Brian Hilburn National Aerospace Lab, Amsterdam


INTRODUCTION

Adaptive automation represents an alternative design approach to the implementation of automation. Computer aiding of the human operator and task allocation between the operator and computer systems are flexible and context-dependent. In contrast, in static automation, provision of computer aiding is predetermined at the design stage, and task allocation is fixed. Several conceptual and theoretical papers have suggested that adaptive systems can regulate operator workload and enhance performance, while preserving the benefits of static automation ( Hancock, Chignell, & Lowenthal, 1985; Parasuraman, Bahri Deaton, Morrison, & Barnes, 1992; Rouse, 1988). The performance costs of certain forms of automation--overreliance, reduced situation awareness, skill degradation, etc. ( Parasuraman & Riley, 1997)--may also be mitigated. These suggestions have only recently been tested empirically ( Hilburn, Jorna, Byrne, & Parasuraman, 1997; Parasuraman, Mouloua, and Molloy, 1996; Scallen, Hancock, & Duley, 1995; see Scerbo, 1996 for a review of earlier work).

Empirical evaluations of adaptive automation have focused primarily on the performance and workload effects of either (1) adaptive aiding of the human operator or (2) adaptive task allocation (ATA), either from the human to the machine (ATA-M), or from the machine to the human (ATA-H). Each of these forms of adaptive automation have been shown to enhance human-system performance, but independently in separate studies. For example, in an early study, Morris and Rouse ( 1986) showed that adaptive aiding (AA) in the form of target localization support enhanced operator performance in a simulated aerial search task. Benefits of AA in a more complex simulation were reported by Hilburn et al. ( 1997), who provided air traffic controllers with a decision aid for determining optimal descent trajectories--the Descent Advisor (DA) of the Center Tracon Automation System (CTAS), an automation aid that is currently undergoing field trials at several air traffic control centers ( Wickens, Mavor, Parasuraman, & McGee, 1998). Hilburn et al. ( 1997) found significant benefits for controller workload (as assessed using physiological measures) when the DA was provided adaptively during high traffic loads, compared to when it was available throughout (static automation) or at low traffic loads. With respect to adaptive task allocation from the machine to the human (ATA-H), Parasuraman et al. ( 1996) showed that temporary return of an automated engine-systems task to manual control benefited subsequent monitoring of the task when it was returned to automated control.

For adaptive systems to be effective, both AA and ATA-H need to be examined jointly in a single work domain. Furthermore, if adaptive systems are designed in a manner typical of "clumsy automation "--i.e., providing aiding or task reallocation when they are least helpful ( Wiener, 1989)--then performance may be degraded rather than enhanced (see also Billings & Woods, 1994). One of the drawbacks of some flightdeck automated systems--for example, the Flight Management System (FMS)--is that they often require extensive reprogramming and impose added workload during high task load phases of flight such as final approach and landing, while doing little to regulate workload during the low-workload

-119-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Automation Technology and Human Performance: Current Research and Trends
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 348

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.