Automation Technology and Human Performance: Current Research and Trends

By Mark W. Scerbo | Go to book overview

Manual Control. As a result, mandated AA subjects were more likely to observe "unacceptable" pointer deviations in the secondary task than non-mandated AA subjects, which indicated reduced workload for the former group. Poorer non-mandated AA group performance in gauge monitoring can be attributed to devotion of greater resources to the primary task. Decrease in non-mandated AA subject performance in the secondary task indicated increased primary task workload.

For mandated AA subjects, manual control in the primary task served to significantly increase secondary task workload, as compared to the workload associated with automation. This can be attributed to higher attentional demands being placed on the operator under Manual Control in terms of implementing a target processing strategy, as compared to Blended Decision-Making. Under Manual Control subjects were required to track and collapse targets using the mouse controller; whereas Blended Decision-Making provided for automatic computer target elimination. The result may also be attributed to the observed lack of mandated AA subject concern with allocations to automation from Manual Control and, consequently, decreased operator attention to the gauge display for computer assistant mandates. Under Multitask© Manual Control, the mandated AA group was less likely to observe pointer errors, decreasing secondary task performance and indicating increased subject workload.


CONCLUSIONS

Human workload measurement through comparison of operational secondary task performance against baseline levels established under optimal conditions can be used as a trigger mechanism for AA to cause changes in operator primary task workload. This workload assessment method appears to be sensitive to both the degree of human involvement in a primary cognitive task and human responsibility in decision- making concerning control allocations. Whether completely human manual processing or blended human- computer strategizing accompanied by computer task implementation is employed, objective workload is significantly affected when operators are mandated to use either LOA, as compared to non-mandated use. The responsibility of allocation decisions in a cognitively complex task appears to have an effect on task performance and operator workload; however, this is dependent upon whether the allocation is to manual or automated control. Humans who are mandated in allocation decisions by a computer controller tend to be more vigilant of Manual Control mandates than those for automation. This may occur because operators view the manual processing mandates as directives to work. Lack of vigilance to automation mandates can be attributed to concentration on Manual Control performance.

On the contrary, humans who are not mandated in implementing AA, appear to be more vigilant of suggestions by a computer assistant for automated control allocations, as compared to suggestions for manual functioning. This can be attributed to operators interpreting computer suggestions to use automation as a form of validation of their decision to do so. Lack of non-mandated AA operator vigilance to manual control suggestions is likely due to a lack of a perceived need to use Manual Control. This is a particularly troubling inference, as it suggests that operators may not be aware of out-of-the-loop performance problems or appreciate their associated consequences.


REFERENCES

Byrne E. A. & Parasuraman R. ( 1996). Psychophysiology and adaptive automation. Biological psychology, 42( 3), 249-268.

Endsley M. R. & Kaber D. B. (in press). Level of automation effects on performance, situation awareness and workload in a dynamic control task. Ergonomics.

Hilburn B. & Jorna P. ( 1997). The effect of adaptive air traffic control (ATC) decision aiding on controller mental workload. In M. Mouloua & J. M. Koonce (Eds.), Human-Automation Interaction: Research and Practice (pp. 84-91). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

-133-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Automation Technology and Human Performance: Current Research and Trends
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 348

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.