Cognitive Process Instruction: Research on Teaching Thinking Skills

By Jack Lochhead; John Clement | Go to book overview

In the analysis given here, the student's conceptions were modeled as a network of causal expectations. It was suggested that causal conceptions of this type represent an important level of knowledge in students that can provide an intuitive foundation for understanding many quantitative laws and that students' preconceptions are natural starting points for building such a foundation.

The fact that this type of conceptual mapping is possible opens up the potential for describing differences in the knowledge structures of an individual at two different points in time. This in turn holds potential for the development of more sophisticated evaluation tools; and the development of new instructional strategies which take typical preconceptions into account and which foster a deeper level of understanding in students.


REFERENCES

Clement, J. "Some Types of Knowledge Used in Physics," Technical Report. University of Massachusetts at Amherst, 1977a.

Clement, J. "The Role of Analogy in Scientific Thinking: Examples from a Problem-Solving Interview," Technical Report. University of Massachusetts at Amherst, 1977b.

Clement, J. "Catalogue of Spontaneous Analogies Produced by Students Solving Physics Problems," Technical Report. University of Massachusetts at Amherst, 1978.

Driver, R. P. "The Representation of Conceptual Frameworks in Young Adolescent Science Students," Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 1973.

Easley, J. A., Jr. "The Structural Paradigm in Protocol Analysis." This volume.

Inhelder, B. and Piaget, J. The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence. New York: Basic books, 1958.

Newell, A. and Simon, H. A. Human Problem Solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972.

Shepard, R. N. "The Mental Image." American Psychologist, 2, pp 125-137, 1978.

Witz, K. G. and Easley, J. A. Jr. "Cognitive Deep Structure and Science Teaching." Presented at a conference entitled "Operations et Didactiques," Centre de Recherche en Didactique, University of Quebec, Montreal, 1971. Reproduced in Appendix 11, "Analysis of Cognitive Behavior in Children," Final Report, Project No. 0-0216, Grant No. OEC-0-70-2142(508). United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education, 1972.

Witz, K. G. and Easley, J. A., Jr. "New Approaches to Cognition." In Neo-Piagetian Perspectives on Cognition and Development, edited by L. V. den Daele, J. Pascual-Leone , and K. Witz, New York: Academic Press, in press.

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