FOR a state to exercise its sovereignty, there must be an area over which this sovereignty may be exerted. Hence a state, in the classical sense, is a body politic, which, in addition to other characteristics, connotes the idea of territory. This is one of the requirements of a state according to non-communist theories, although, as a matter of fact, no definition of the state in international law has ever included any mention of domain. It has been emphasized that the communists conceive the state to be a struggle of classes. Even with such an abstract conception of state, however, it is evident that the territorial element is of great importance, for it is the territory which serves as the arena for this struggle. Moreover, in order to possess international legal capacity, i.e., to be a subject of international law, the state must have authority over a population within a certain territory. Hence, the relation of the Soviet State to its territory must be analyzed.
The territory of a communist state is a geographical limitation of the space over which the dictatorial authority of the proletariat extends. Over its territory it exercises complete authority, as does any fully sovereign state. To quote Stuchka, a leading Soviet jurist:
"The State is a class organization of Soviets embodying a fixed territory and its population, and united under the sovereign state authority."1
The expression "sovereign state authority" per se implies the right to command, including the right to employ the forces of the state to execute the laws, which right is an essential charac____________________