able, in the physical laboratory, to reproduce these conditions closely enough to feel assured that we fully understand the mechanism of the thundercloud.

As to the origin of the electricity or the electrification, it is quite plausible that there may be some minor processes at work, such as friction, the discharge of vapors from volcanoes, chemical activity, induction, etc., but our attention is at present directed principally toward two sources: (a) The bombardment and ionization of the outer atmosphere by electrified corpuscles or electrons issuing at great velocities from the sun. This theory has been developed by Strömer, Birkeland, Arrhenius, and others, and has much in its favor. (b) The electrical separation supposed to be produced by the breaking of large raindrops into smaller ones by an uprushing current of air. This theory, advanced by Simpson,1 is supported by observations and numerous laboratory experiments, and deserves careful study.

In regard to the electric phenomena of the atmosphere, it is not safe to hazard definite statements, but possibly auroras are due to earth-captured solar electrons, while the lightning of a thunderstorm owes its origin, chiefly, at least, to the electrical separation produced by the action of wind on raindrops.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

ABBE CLEVELAND, "The Mechanics of the Earth's Atmosphere, a Collection of Translations," Washington, 1891. (Smithsonian miscellaneous collections, 843.) Translations of papers by Hagen, Helmholtz, Kirchhoff, Oberbeck, Hertz, Bezold, and Margules, and reprints of papers by Rayleigh and Ferrel.

BIGELOW FRANK II., "Report on the International Cloud Observations," Washington, 1900. ( United States Weather Bureau, Report of the Chief, 1898- 99, vol. ii.) Includes comparative study of the contributions of Ferrel, Oberbeck, Sprung, Hertz, Bezold, etc., and a proposed uniform system of fundamental constants and formulæ.

BRILLOUIN MARCEL, "Mémoires originaux sur la circulation générale de l'atmosphère," Paris, 1900. Comprises translations and abstracts of the principal contributions of Halley, Hadley, Maury, Ferrel, Werner Siemens, M. Möller, Oberbeck, and H. von Helmholtz.

____________________
1
Philosophical Transactions Royal Society, Series A, vol. ccix, pp. 379-413, 1909.

-170-

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Descriptive Meteorology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface and Credits vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Illustrations xv
  • List of Charts xvii
  • Introduction 1
  • Bibliography 2
  • Chapter I the Atmospheres of the Earth and of the Planets 4
  • Bibliography 13
  • Chapter II Atmospheric Air 14
  • Bibliography 26
  • Chapter III MicroÖrganisms and Dust-Motes of the Air 27
  • Bibliography 37
  • Chapter IV Physical Conditions of the Sun and Its Relation to the Earth's Atmosphere 38
  • Bibliography 45
  • Chapter V Heat, Light, and Temperature 46
  • Bibliography 60
  • Chapter VI Thermometry 61
  • Bibliography 68
  • Chapter VII Distribution of Insolation and the Resulting Temperatures of the Atmosphere, the Land, and the Water 69
  • Bibliography 118
  • Chapter VIII the Isothermal Layer 119
  • Bibliography 126
  • Chapter IX Atmospheric Pressure and Circulation 127
  • Bibliography 170
  • Chapter X the Winds of the Globe 172
  • Bibliography 188
  • Chapter XI the Clouds 190
  • Bibliography 198
  • Chapter XII Precipitation 199
  • Bibliography 214
  • Chapter XIII Forecasting the Weather and Storms 216
  • Bibliography 242
  • Chapter XIV Optical Phenomena in Meteorology 244
  • Bibliography 256
  • Chapter XV 258
  • Bibliography 281
  • Appendix 283
  • Charts 285
  • Index 333
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