Christy Marshall, "FCB Chief Raps TV Nets," Advertising Age, May 9, 1983, p. 2. Leo Bogart
Charles Lehman, "The Case of the 30-Second Commercial," Journal of Advertising Research 23 ( February-March 1983): 11-18.
On the concept of the "mock reader" or the "implied audience" see Walker Gibson,
"Authors, Speakers, Readers, and Mock Readers" in
Jane P. Tompkins, Reader-Response
Criticism ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980), pp. 1-6. (The essay originally
appeared in College English, February 1950, pp. 265-69.)
Fred Posner, "Advertising Efficiency: An Intensely Personal Matter" ( New York: N.
W. Ayer Inc., 1982).
Christopher Lasch, The Culture of Narcissism ( New York: W. W. Norton, 1978], p. 72. Lasch's concern is with the consumer as a person who finds life's meaning in the
purchase of economic goods and services. See also Otis Pease, who writes that the modern
task of advertising is to convince the citizen "to conceive of himself primarily as a
consumer of goods," in The Responsibilities of American Advertising: Private Control
and Public Influence, 1920-1940 ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958], p. 1. Others
are troubled by a "consumer orientation" that extends to nonmarket action and a "market
mentality" as a style of personality that takes everything in life to be a matter of private
choice, including even the choice of religious commitment. See, for instance, Thomas Luckmann
, The Invisible Religion ( New York: Macmillan, 1967), pp. 98-106 on the consumer orientation to the sacred cosmos and ultimate meanings.
James Coleman, The Asymmetrical Society ( Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1982), p. 132.
Stuart Ewen, Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Social Roots of the
Consumer Culture ( New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976), p. 12.