EGBA is, today, one of the largest of the yoruba kingdoms. It is of recent foundation for it is only a hundred and thirty years since the people of the many small Egba towns settled together at Abeokuta. During this period there has been a continual conflict between the chiefs of these towns, on the one hand anxious to retain their power and maintain a federal form of government, and the Alakes, the obas of the new kingdom on the other hand, who have tried to consolidate the authority of the central government.
The Egba kingdom is coterminous with the modern administrative unit of Egba Division. It stretches from Isheri only twelve miles from Lagos, to the River Omi in the north-east, a similar distance from Ibadan. To the south-east are the Ijebu Remo kingdoms of Shagamu, Iperu and Ishara; to the west lie the Egbado kingdoms and to the north the Ibarapa kingdoms of Eruwa and Igbo-ora. Two towns have a semiindependent status within the Egba kingdom: Otta is the capital of the Awori people, who were pushed southwards by the immigrant Egba, and Imala is an Egbado kingdom whose people did not abandon their town at the time of the Dahomey wars.
The boundary between the crystalline rocks of the basement complex and the sedimentary series runs from WNW. to ESE. approximately through Abeokuta. To the north-west of the capital the country is a peneplain, rising to over 600 feet above sea level, surfaced in many parts by a concretionary lateritic ironstone which gives the country an and appearance. Rivers cut deeply and in their valley bottoms is most of the forest of this area. East of Abeokuta, on the crystalline rocks, the country is undulating and well watered, the forest cover increasing eastwards towards the boundaries with Ibadan and Ijebu; in the nineteenth century, an extensive no-man's-land lay between these territories. Southwards the country falls towards the sea in a succession of escarpments. The Egba kingdom is bisected by the Ogun river. At Abeokuta it lies less than 100 feet above sea level; the west bank rises gently without any spectacular features, but its east bank is lined with a series of granite tors, the highest of which (north of the town) rises to over 550 feet. The most famous of these tors is, however, the Olumo rock, around which Abeokuta is built; the caves formed naturally by the tremendous over-hanging boulders have probably been inhabited for many centuries.
The population of Egba Division is 394,000, of whom 97.5 per cent are yoruba (including the Egba proper, the Owu, Awori and Egbado).