Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite: The American Revolution & the European Response

By Charles W. Toth | Go to book overview

Notes
1.
See the author's article: "Europe, the Rockingham Whigs, and the War for American Independence: Some Documents", The Huntington Library Quarterly, XXV ( 1961), pp. 1-28; also "Parliamentary supremacy vs. Independence: Notes and Documents", The Huntington Library Quarterly, XXVI ( 1963), pp. 201-233.
2.
See Richard W. Van Alstyne, The Rising American Empire ( Oxford, 1960), pp. 28-68. Editor's note: Reprinted by Norton Press in 1974.
3.
Cf. Carl Van Doren, Secret History of the American Revolution ( New York, 1941); Helen Augur, The Secret War of Independence ( New York, 1955).
4.
Samuel Flagg Bemis, "British Secret Service and the French-American Alliance", American Historical Review, XXIX ( 1924), pp. 474-495; The Diplomacy of the American Revolution ( New York, 1935), p. 66. Editor's note: Reprinted by Indiana University Press and Peter Smith in 1957. Also "Secret Intelligence, 1777: Two Documents", The Huntington Library Quarterly, XXIV ( 1961), pp. 233-249. (It is questionable whether the term "secret service" is properly applicable to those times, since there was no established organization, and the lesser "spies" were little better than busybodies.)
5.
Wentworth and Bancroft had a sort of working agreement with William Eden (see my "Parliamentary Supremacy", pp. 203-204). Julian P. Boyd, "Silas Deane: Death by a Kindly Teacher of Treason"? William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd. Ser., XVI ( 1959), pp. 165-187, 319-342, 515-550, extends our knowledge of Wentworth and Bancroft and views Deane realistically as a scheming and avaricious emissary.
6.
See Introduction to Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, I ( Washington, 1889). 6 volumes.
7.
On Nov. 15 Yorke reported that Silas Deane had come to Amsterdam in the hope of borrowing money, but he thought that both French and American credit was low. Dutch merchants demanded payment in cash or goods. Nobody in Amsterdam, he added, believed that France meant to begin a war.
8.
Orlando W. Stephenson, "The Supply of Gunpowder in 1776", American Historical Review, XXX ( 1925), pp. 271-281.
9.
The Despatches of Molyneux Shuldham . . . January-July, 1776, ed. Robert Wilden Nesser , Pubs. of the Naval History Soc., III ( New York, 1913), pp. 37-39, 69-75 (quote on p. 72); The Private Papers ofjohn, Earl of Sandwich, First Lord of the Admiralty, 1771-1782, ed. G. R. Barnes and J. H. Owne; Pubs. of the Navy Records Soc., LXGX ( London, 1932),1, 102-103.
10.
Fresh orders for powder had just come from Bordeaux, he added. The Americans bought almost all their powder through Amsterdam, but the business was so deviously conducted as to make it appear that other countries were also sources of supply.
11.
This memorial discouraged the export of powder from Amsterdam direct to St. Eustatia, but it did not affect the indirect trade via French and Spanish ports nor the importation of goods of American origin into Holland via St. Eustatia.

-361-

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