The land known as Mesopotamia was the home of the Babylonians (historians sometimes call the underlying culture Sumer). There were significant dissimilarities between Egypt and Mesopotamia. Located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Mesopotamia was much more easily invaded than Egypt. Not surprisingly, the medical arts, and therefore biology, progressed much faster in Mesopotamia than in Egypt, since schooling in medicine was imperative for the treatment of wounded and ailing soldiers in the field. Among their other accomplishments, the Sumerians developed early erudition in, and distinguished some surprisingly modern areas of, biology. Studies show that Sumerian scientists delved into endocrinology (the study of hormones), histology (the analysis of tissues), comparative anatomy (an approach to anatomy that progresses by comparing one animal with another), and many other topics.
Hosts of intrepid researchers also developed a considerable fund of botanical material. As in Egypt, science, magic, and superstition