Ecological Interactions and Biological Control

By David A. Andow; David W. Ragsdale et al. | Go to book overview

Table 5.1 Role of the Public and Private Sectors in the Development
and Commercialization of Bioherbicides
Public Sector Private Sector
Discovery
Isolation
Identification
Host range
Biology (dew, temperature, etc.)
Efficacy (greenhouse, field)
Patenting Patenting
Fermentation
Scale-up
Stability---Shelf Life
Registration
Marketing and sales

The public is increasingly concerned about the use of chemical pesticides. Whether these concerns are well-founded or not, it has forced regulators to be more restrictive, often slowing newer, safer products in coming to market. Biologicals, generally perceived to be safer, offer an alternative or complementary tool for pest control. Nevertheless, the safety of bioherbicides, naturally occurring or genetically altered, to the environment and to health must be proven. Only through education can the public be won over and help influence the regulatory atmosphere to allow for development of these products. Most of the ecological constraints can be overcome by appropriately focused research; the regulatory constraints, however, can be overcome only by public support, understanding, and a high level of public and regulatory comfort with this developing technology.


Summary

Constraints to development and successful use of plant pathogens as biocontrol agents of weeds are mainly ecological and regulatory. The ecological contraints usually investigated are moisture and temperature requirements, survival, dispersal, and specificity of the pathogenic organisms. Less commonly considered is the colonization potential of a biocontrol agent affected by competition and antagonism in the phyllosphere. Understanding the infection process at this level is key to developing more effective formulations and products. The nature of the target weed and the type of biocontrol agent can indicate the level of control that may be achieved. The level of control acceptable from an agricultural perspective may need to be reconsidered from an ecological perspective by taking competing vegetation into account.

Regulations are one of the major constraints to the successful development and commercialization of pathogens as weed biocontrol agents. BioMal was registered for use in

-97-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Ecological Interactions and Biological Control
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 340

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.