Please update your browser

You're using a version of Internet Explorer that isn't supported by Questia.
To get a better experience, go to one of these sites and get the latest
version of your preferred browser:

Ecological Interactions and Biological Control

By David A. Andow; David W. Ragsdale et al. | Go to book overview

tinuous application. Sheehan and Lewis (unpublished data) found that application of the attractive plant volatile caryophyllene to cotton in small experimental patches increased retention of released M. croceipes without interfering with efficiency. The approach of adding foraging stimuli may be more relevant to short- term foraging (i.e., establishment upon release) than to retaining parasitoids in fields for a long time.

Manipulation of Plant Qualities. Variation in plant quality resulting from plant breeding and fertilization may be manipulated to advantage. Many, perhaps most, elements of plant resistance incorporated into crop plants during breeding programs are likely to be detrimental to parasitoids. For example, sticky trichomes entrap adult parasitoids as well as herbivores ( Rabb and Bradley 1968); nectariless cotton (developed to foil adult moth feeding) also deprives parasitoids of needed food for flight; and allelochemicals designed to reduce herbivore feeding may be passed on to developing parasitoids ( Campbell and Duffey 1979). However, carefully selected traits, such as Bt expression in cotton, may enhance parasitoid activity by extending the window of host vulnerability. Behavioral responses of insects to endogenous plant protectants are complex and need more study ( Gould 1988).


Conclusion

This chapter emphasizes intrinsic variations in the effectiveness of natural enemies. Further, it stresses the interconnectedness of natural enemies with other components of the ecosystem, the dependence of natural enemies on other components of the ecosystem, and the dependence of natural enemies on varied extrinsic resources within the cropping system and in the surrounding vegetation. An understanding of these intrinsic and extrinsic variables and their interdisciplinary management is required in order to ensure reliable performance of natural enemies.


References

Altieri, M. A., W. J. Lewis, D. A. Nordlund, R. C. Gueldner, and J. W. Todd. 1981. "Chemical interactions between plants and Trichogramma wasps in Georgia soybean fields". Protection Ecology 3:259-63.

Andow, D. A. 1991. "Vegetational diversity and arthropod population response". Annual Review of Entomology 36:561-86.

Campbell, B. C., and S. S. Duffey. 1979. "Tomatine and parasitic wasps: Potential incompatibility of plant antibiosis and biological control". Science 205:700-2.

Coll, M. 1993. Response of parasitoids to increased plant species diversity through intercropping. In Enhancing natural control of arthropod pests through habitat management, ed. C. H. Pickett and R. L. Bugg.

Drost, Y. C., W. J. Lewis, and J. H. Tumlinson. 1988. "Beneficial arthropod behavior mediated by airborne semiochemicals. V. Influence of rearing methods, host plant, adult experience on host-searching behavior of Microplitis croceipes (Cresson), a parasitoid of Heliothis"

-278-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Ecological Interactions and Biological Control
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 340

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.