Separate and Unequal: Public School Campaigns and Racism in the Southern Seaboard States, 1901-1915

By Louis R. Harlan | Go to book overview

CHAPTER V
Virginia: The Machine and the Schools

"ALL THE STATES but our own are sensible that knowledge is power," wrote Thomas Jefferson toward the end of his unsuccessful struggle for public schools in Virginia, disappointment dulling his usual precision. But the free school idea, supported by a strong minority in the ante-bellum period, remained vigorous enough to give the state system begun during Reconstruction a considerable support among native whites. The public schools survived under a dedicated Redeemer superintendent, William H. Ruffner, and the Readjuster movement of the eighties increased the state fund by 50 per cent. But after a public school famine in the nineties, the expenditure per school child in 1900 was only $9.70 a year, the average annual salary of teachers only $168.19. The school term was 119 days, about one-third of the children attending each day.1

____________________
1
Jefferson to Joseph C. Cabell, January 20, 1820, quoted in Adrienne Koch, The Philosophy of Thomas Jefferson ( New York, 1943), p. 168; James A. Quarles ( Washington and Lee University), "Our Rural Schools a Makeshift", in Richmond Times-Dispatch, January 6, 1907. Useful works on the struggle for public schools in the nineteenth century include James L. Blair Buck, The Development of Public Schools in Virginia, 1607-1952 ( Richmond, 1952); William A. Maddox, The Free School Idea in Virginia before the Civil War: A Phase of Political and Social Evolution: Teachers College, Columbia University, Contributions to Education, No. 9 3 ( New York, 1918); Cornelius J. Heatwole, A History of Education in Virginia ( New York, 1916) ; Alfred J. Morrison, The Beginnings of Education in Virginia, 1776-1860: A Study of Secondary Schools in Relation to the State Literary Fund ( Richmond, 1917); William T. Alderson , "The Freedmen's Bureau and Negro Education in Virginia", in North Carolina Historical Review, XXIX ( January, 1952), 64-903; Amory D. Mayo , "The Final Establishment of the American Common School System in WestVirginia, Maryland, Virginia, and Delaware, 1863-1900",

-135-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Separate and Unequal: Public School Campaigns and Racism in the Southern Seaboard States, 1901-1915
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 290

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.