Separate and Unequal: Public School Campaigns and Racism in the Southern Seaboard States, 1901-1915

By Louis R. Harlan | Go to book overview

CHAPTER VIII
Educational Expansion and the Context of Racism

"THESE ARE STIRRING TIMES" said educational campaigner James Y. Joyner in 1909. "The forgotten man has been remembered; the forgotten woman has been discovered; the forgotten child shall have his full chance in the South at last, thank God."1 Edgar Gardner Murphy, a more analytical but not thereby less zealous participant, saw that "the campaign for the development of educational enthusiasm has gained astonishing headway in every state" and that "in helping the movement for 'more money' we have aided the South in assembling the raw materials, the stone and mortar, for the building of an educational system. But the nature of the building, from its very foundations, is still to be determined."2

Though Southern Education Board claims were sometimes excessive, there really was a remarkable expansion in Southern public education in the years after 1900. In eleven Southern states where the Board was active, annual expenditures for schools increased by $18,169,848 between 1900 and 1909. The total amount raised in these states between 1903 and 1909 was over $51,000,000.3 And the expansion continued to accelerate until the Great Depression of the thirties.

____________________
1
Twelfth Conference for Education in the South, Proceedings ( Atlanta, 1909), p. 212.
2
Murphy to Buttrick, November 14, 1907, Southern Education Board Papers, University of North Carolina.
3
[ George S. Dickerman and Wickliffe Rose], Southern Education Board: Activities and Results 1904-1910: Southern Education Board Publication No. 7 ( Washington, 1911), pp. 8-10, 13, 17-21, 225-26.

-248-

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