The Jacksonians Versus the Banks: Politics in the States after the Panic of 1837

By James Roger Sharp | Go to book overview

CHAPTER VII

Ohio Constituencies

I

THE OHIO ECONOMY at the time of the Panic of 1837 was in a transitional stage. In 1840 the census reported that 76 per cent of all employed Ohioans were engaged in agriculture.1 But, while Mississippi had a one-crop slave economy, Ohio was developing a diversified agriculture based on free labor and complemented by commercial and industrial growth. Ohio was also among the most urbanized of the western states. In addition to Cincinnati, there were numerous smaller commercial centers scattered throughout the state. To facilitate economic expansion, Ohio by 1840 was completing an important canal system and planning a comprehensive railroad network. In Ohio there was not the sectional dichotomy between wealth and lack of wealth that divided the Delta-Loess from the counties to the!east in Mississippi. Except for the poorer, more sparsely populated Maumee Valley on the northwestern frontier, the sections of Ohio -- the Miami Valley, Scioto Valley, Hocking Valley, Muskingum Valley, Western Reserve, and the River Counties -- all were relatively well settled and were of nearly comparable wealth.2

Corn and wheat were the major crops in Ohio. In 1840 the state ranked third in the country in corn growing and first in wheat; by 1850 it had climbed to first in corn and dropped to second in wheat. Counties in the Miami Valley in southwestern Ohio and the Scioto

____________________
1
W. A. Lloyd, J. I. Falconer, and C. E. Thorne, The Agriculture of Ohio: Bulletin 326 of the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station (Wooster, Ohio, 1918), 43.

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The Jacksonians Versus the Banks: Politics in the States after the Panic of 1837
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Contents xiii
  • Graphs and Maps xiv
  • Song from a Jackson Barbecue September 25, 1839 *
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter I - The Democratic Party and the Politics of Agrarianism 3
  • Chapter II - Banking Before the Panic 25
  • The West 51
  • Chapter III - Mississippi 55
  • Chapter IV - Mississippi Constituencies 89
  • Chapter V - The Southwest 110
  • Chapter VI - Ohio 123
  • Chapter VII - Ohio Constituencies 160
  • Chapter VIII - The Northwest 190
  • The East 211
  • Chapter IX - Virginia 215
  • Chapter X - Virginia Constituencies 247
  • Chapter XI - The Southeast 274
  • Chapter XII - Pennsylvania and New York 285
  • Chapter XIII - The Northeast 306
  • Conclusion 321
  • Appendices 331
  • Notes to Tables 342
  • Bibliography 351
  • Index 379
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