Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations

By Reginald A. Ray | Go to book overview

Notes
1.
For a detailed discussion of these, see Chapter 9. On Mahākāśyapa, see Lamotte 1944-80, 87-103, 190-96, 287, 615, 654, 1046-47, 1399, 1761, and 2332-34; 1958, 19, 24, 71, 101, 137, 226-27, 191-92, and passim; and 1962, 149-50. For additional references, see below in this chapter.
2.
The Theravāda commentary on the An + ̄guttaranikāya, the Manorathapūraṇī, follows suit ( Mrp 1:161). The passage in the Chinese Ekottarāgama parallel to the An + ̄guttara por trays Mahākāśyapa as typically preeminent among those who follow the dhutaguṇas ( Lamotte 1958, 765-66, citing the Ekottarāgama.
3.
In Mv, he is several other times explicitly connected with these practices ( Mv 1:64.14 [ Jns., 1:53]; Mv 1:66.16 [ Jns., 1:55]; Mv 1:71.12 [ Jns., 1:57]).
4.
Lamotte provides a useful summary of this material ( 1958, 191-92, 226-27).
5.
No reference is made here to texts dealing with Mahākāśyapa composed outside of India. Of particular interest in this regard are the "Five Records of the Lamp," five texts dating from the Sung dynasty (960-1279) in China that trace the lineage of transmission from Śākyamuni. These texts, which contain biographic images of Mahākāśyapa, have been helpfully summarized by Dumoulin ( 1988, 7-10). The materials presented in these texts appear sometimes to duplicate material found in the Indian texts summarized above and sometimes to provide stories and images not found in those texts. See also McRae 1986, 79-82.
6.
The Mahāvastu provides an account of the saint, beginning with a former life, in which his reputation as a meditating ascetic living in solitude in the Himalayas is already reflected ( Mv 2:160 [ Jns., 2:110]).
7.
We are told that he himself owned eighty cartloads of gold, five hundred bondsmen, five hundred bondswomen, five hundred head of cattle, five hundred fields and villages, and so on ( Mv 3:67 [ Jns., 3:49]).
8.
Mv 3:67.5 ( Jns., 3:49); cf. BHSD346, s.v. pilotika. See also Mv 3:53.14, 16 ( Jns., 3:54). See also BHSD354, s.v. pailottika, and 395, s.v. plotikā.
9.
He remarks, "And when I saw him, there came to me the unambiguous awareness that I was looking on the perfect Buddha, on the Exalted One, who was all-knowing, all- seeing, and possessed of absolute perfect knowledge" ( Mv 3:67 [ Jns., 3:50]).
10.
See Hofinger 1954, 195. Hofinger remarks on the relative antiquity of these verses (193, n. 3).
11.
The Buddha says, "If a man should accept a disciple in complete possession of his mind, and then, though he was not perfectly enlightened should claim to be so; though not all-seeing, should claim to be so; though he was limited in knowledge and insight, should claim to have absolute knowledge and insight, his head would split in seven. As for me, O Kāśyapa, I claim to be perfectly enlightened, because I am so; I claim to be all-knowing, because I am so; I claim to be all-seeing because I am so; I claim to have absolute knowledge and insight, because I have them" ( Mv 3:68 [ Jns., 3:50]). This appeal to a magico- religious phenomenon (the heads of those who lie about such matters split in seven) is reminiscent of the story of the Buddha's enlightenment, where he appeals, not to human authority, but to the earth divinity.
12.
Elsewhere in Mv we are told that Kāśyapa was purified through the dhutaguṇas (dhutadharpnaviśuddha) ( Mv 1:80.3 [ Jns., 1:56]), and as his personality in the text is closely bound up with them, one cannot think of his training under the Buddha apart from the forest life in general and these practices in particular. As the organ of restraint the text specifically mentions here the prātimokṣa. The prominence of forest renunciation in general and in particular the dhutaguṇa in relation to Mahākāśyapa's personality, as defined else

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Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Contents xi
  • Conventions xiii
  • Abbreviations xv
  • Introduction 3
  • Notes 10
  • 1 - The Buddhist Saints and the Two-Tiered Model of Buddhism 15
  • Notes 36
  • 2 - Buddha Śākyamuni as a Saint 44
  • Notes 68
  • 3 - Saints of the Theragāthā and Therīgāthā 79
  • Notes 99
  • 4 - Some Orthodox Saints in Buddhism 105
  • Conclusion 136
  • Notes 141
  • 5 - Saints Criticized and Condemned 151
  • Notes 173
  • 6 - Cults of Arhants 179
  • Notes 205
  • 7 - The Solitary Saint, the Pratyekabuddha 213
  • Notes 241
  • 8 - Bodhisattva Saints of the Forest in Mahāyāna Sūtras 251
  • Appendix: the Minor Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā Sūtra on Forest Bhikṣus 275
  • Appendix: the Minor Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā Sūtra on Forest Bhikṣus 280
  • 9 - Ascetic Traditions of Buddhist Saints 293
  • Notes 318
  • 10 - The Buddhist Saints and the Stūpa 324
  • Notes 352
  • 11 - The Cult of Saints and Buddhist Doctrines of Absence and Presence 358
  • Notes 386
  • 12 - The Buddhist Saints and the Process of Monasticization 396
  • Notes 423
  • Conclusion: Toward a Threefold Model of Buddhism 433
  • Notes 447
  • Bibliography 448
  • Index 469
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