Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations

By Reginald A. Ray | Go to book overview

9
Ascetic Traditions of Buddhist Saints

The Dhutaguṇas

So far this study has dealt primarily with two of the three dimensions of the Buddhist saints, their hagiographic paradigms and their cults. This chapter raises the issue of the third dimension, the specific ascetic traditions typically followed by the saints themselves. The preceding chapters have already indicated what is most important about these ascetic traditions: they are traditions of forest renunciation. The Buddha himself emerges from a tradition of retirement to the forest and homeless wandering. Mahākāyapa, at least in most sources, also follows a wandering, ascetic way of life in the forest. The later patriarch Upagupta is a forest saint who lives on Mount Urumuṇḍa--famed for meditation--far from Aśoka's capital. Piṇḍolabhāradvāja is a forest saint who wanders about, begging food and meditating. Devadatta is a forest renunciant, who is criticized for wanting to reconfirm the ancient forest way of life in its purity in the face of change. And even Śāriputra, prototypical embodiment of settled monastic values and orientation, has forest features in his history and personality.

We also saw that the saints of the Theragāthā and Therīgāthā live in the forest, as do many of the arhants mentioned by the Chinese pilgrims. The pratyekabuddha likewise follows a forest way of renunciation and so do the the bodhisattvas examined in the previous chapter. The habitual association of saint with forest is important; it is the forest, we seem to be told, that is the natural habitat of the saint, the environment where saints are produced. The converse is also suggested: living saints are not typically or naturally associated with the settled monastery of town and village. 1 In light of the preceding chapters, this should come as no surprise. As we have seen, it is by meditation that, in Buddhism, realization and realized people become possible, and those who would practice meditation intensively must withdraw to the forest. 2

An important aspect of the identity of Buddhist forest traditions are specific codes of ascetic practice that relate to, among other things, a forest renunciant's dress, sustenance, and habitation and sometimes speech, meditation, seclusion, and basic attitudes of renunciation. As we shall see, these codes appear in a considerable variety of forms and are found in a wide selection of texts of both Nikāya and Mahāyāna Buddhism. This chapter sets out some of the more promi

-293-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Contents xi
  • Conventions xiii
  • Abbreviations xv
  • Introduction 3
  • Notes 10
  • 1 - The Buddhist Saints and the Two-Tiered Model of Buddhism 15
  • Notes 36
  • 2 - Buddha Śākyamuni as a Saint 44
  • Notes 68
  • 3 - Saints of the Theragāthā and Therīgāthā 79
  • Notes 99
  • 4 - Some Orthodox Saints in Buddhism 105
  • Conclusion 136
  • Notes 141
  • 5 - Saints Criticized and Condemned 151
  • Notes 173
  • 6 - Cults of Arhants 179
  • Notes 205
  • 7 - The Solitary Saint, the Pratyekabuddha 213
  • Notes 241
  • 8 - Bodhisattva Saints of the Forest in Mahāyāna Sūtras 251
  • Appendix: the Minor Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā Sūtra on Forest Bhikṣus 275
  • Appendix: the Minor Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā Sūtra on Forest Bhikṣus 280
  • 9 - Ascetic Traditions of Buddhist Saints 293
  • Notes 318
  • 10 - The Buddhist Saints and the Stūpa 324
  • Notes 352
  • 11 - The Cult of Saints and Buddhist Doctrines of Absence and Presence 358
  • Notes 386
  • 12 - The Buddhist Saints and the Process of Monasticization 396
  • Notes 423
  • Conclusion: Toward a Threefold Model of Buddhism 433
  • Notes 447
  • Bibliography 448
  • Index 469
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 510

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.