American Foreign Policy
Mr. MCCARTHY. Mr. President, it is unnecessary to tell the Senate, the country, or the world that America is facing the greatest military disaster in its entire history. Day by day and hour by hour the situation grows blacker, blacker for the world, blacker for the United States, and more particularly is it painfully blacker for over 100,000 American young man in Korea.
At this very moment the mothers and wives of those young men are treading deeply into the valley of darkness and despair. It is not necessary to use high- sounding words to describe the situation to our men in Korea. Those men, their mothers, fathers, and wives, see the situation in its elemental ugliness. They are face to face with facts--facts that cannot be escaped by pious platitudes. It is high time for all, including those responsible for administration policy, to get down to rugged reality, to look at conditions as they actually are today, and not as we wish them to be.
It is not too late for a realistic examination or a reexamination, if you will, of the situation to produce some lessening of the perils of those gallant men now fighting on one of the frontiers of freedom. Upon the results of such an examination we must chart a course of effective action, and we must be prompt in doing so. Promptness, Mr. President, is no less required than realism, we are like the firemen who debate while the house burns down.
In this time of peril, it is the duty of everyone--Democrat, Dixiecrat, or Republican--to work in the national interest. We are all, first of all, Americans. But it is not in the national interest to unite in support of error, or of policies that have failed. Unity then would only compound the damage of the past. World history is littered with the corpses of nations which were united behind bad leadership following the wrong course.
Let us briefly examine the three plans which this administration has used in three of the major areas of the world in the last 5 years.
No. 1: The Forrestal plan, which Truman fortunately adopted for Greece and Turkey. As we all know, the Forrestal plan, simply stated, was to give all the necessary military aid to people who themselves were willing to fight communism--enough military aid to make them strong enough to withstand international communism. While sufficient economic aid was given to make the military aid effective and workable, the emphasis at all times under the Forrestal plan was to be on military aid. The Forrestal plan, as we know, proved very successful.
No. 2: The Acheson-Marshall plan for all of western Europe, which was directly opposite to the Forrestal plan for Greece and Turkey. It consisted of giving the maximum economic aid with no thought whatsoever of any military defense of western Europe. In fact, the over-all plan was to build up the area economically and keep it defenseless from a military standpoint.
MR. KEM. Mr. President, will the Senator yield?
Mr. MCCARTHY. I yield.
Mr. KEM. Is it not true that the Marshall plan, as originally proposed by General Marshall, included Russia among its beneficiaries?
Mr. MCCARTHY. That is certainly true.
The Acheson-Marshall plan fitted perfectly with Communist Russia's desire for a power vacuum in all of western Europe. On paper, as we know, there was a material and welcome change in the Acheson-Marshall plan for western Europe over a year ago. The change is on paper. At that time, as the Senate will recall, we voted vast sums of money for the military defense of western Europe. As of today, however, western Europe is still defenseless, while our State Department holds lengthy conferences with European leaders on such questions as whether or not an additional 500 policemen can safely be allowed to Western Germany.
No. 3: The Hiss-Acheson-Jessup-Lattimore-Vincent plan to turn all of Asia over to the Communists and to then cooperate with those friendly Communists. In other words, in one area of the world the plan was to fight international communism with economic aid; in another area it was to fight international communism with military aid; and