Was Huck Black? Mark Twain and African-American Voices

By Shelley Fisher Fishkin | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction
1.
Ralph Ellison, "Change the Joke and Slip the Yoke", 55.
2.
See, for example, Robert Alter, Rogue's Progress: Study in the Picaresque Novel; Alexander Blackburn, The Myth of the Picaro; Hugh A. Harter, "Mark Twain y la tradicion picaresca"; John B. Hughes, "Lazarillo de Tormes y Huckleberry Finn"; Kenneth S. Lynn, Mark Twain and Southwestern Humor; James M. Cox , Mark Twain: The Fate of Humor; Walter Blair, Mark Twain and "Huck Finn"; Henry Nash Smith, Mark Twain: The Development of a Writer; Pascal Covici, Jr., Mark Twain's Humor; David E. E. Sloane, Mark Twain as a Literary Comedian; M. Thomas Inge, ed., The Frontier Humorists; Leo Marx, "The Vernacular Tradition in American Literature"; Shelley Fisher Fishkin, From Fact to Fiction: Journalism and Imaginative Writing in America; Edgar Marquess Branch, The Literary Apprenticeship of Mark Twain and "Mark Twain: Newspaper Reading and the Writer's Creativity"; and Alan Gribben, ' "I Did Wish Tom Sawyer Was There': Boy-Book Elements in Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn".
3.
Twain said, ' "Huckleberry Finn' was Tom Blankenship" (Autobiograpby,73). See also notes on Tom and Bence Blankenship in Dahlia Armon and Walter Blair, "Biographical Directory", 302-3.
4.
The notable exceptions to this rule are William Andrews (" Mark Twain and James W. C. Pennington: Huckleberry Finn Smallpox Lie"), David Bradley ( "The First 'Nigger' Novel"), Ralph Ellison ( "What America Would Be Like Without Blacks"), Lucinda MacKethan ( "Huck Finn and the Slave Narratives"), and Arnold Rampersad ( "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Afro-American Literature").

For critical discussions of the speech of Twain's African-American characters, see Lee A. Pederson, Negro Speech in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; James Nathan Tidwell, "Mark Twain's Representation of Negro Speech"; Sally Boland, "The Seven Dialects in Huckleberry Finn"; Curt Morris Rulon, "The Dialects in Huckleberry Finn"; and David Carkeet, "The Dialects in Huckleberry Finn". The best-known consideration of African-American folk beliefs in Twain work is Daniel G. Hoffman, "Black Magic -- and White -- in Huckleberry Finn".

Critics have also approached Huckleberry Finn in terms of the roles played by Twain's black characters, and Twain's racial attitudes. See Ralph Ellison, "Change the Joke and Slip the Yoke" and "Twentieth-Century Fiction and the Black Mask of Humanity"; Arthur G. Pettit, Mark Twain and the South; Philip Foner , Mark Twain: Social Critic; Louis J. Budd, Mark Twain: Social Philosopher; Louis Rubin, Jr., "Southern Local Color and the Black Man;" Catherine Juanita Starke

-147-

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Was Huck Black? Mark Twain and African-American Voices
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgments vii
  • Contents xi
  • Illustrations xiii
  • Introduction 3
  • Part One - Jimmy 11
  • 1 13
  • 2 41
  • Part Two - Jerry 51
  • 3 53
  • 4 68
  • Part Three - Jim 77
  • 5 79
  • 6 93
  • Part Four - Break Dancing in the Drawing Room 109
  • 7 111
  • 8 121
  • 9 128
  • Coda 145
  • Notes 147
  • Works Cited 219
  • Sociable Jimmy 249
  • Index 253
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