Faces of the Feminine in Ancient, Medieval, and Modern India

By Mandakranta Bose | Go to book overview

us they once at least partially had -- namely, equal rights with men in marriage, divorce, and remarriage.


Notes
1.
A similar verse also appear in Naradasmṛti xii-97, Agni Purāḳa 154.6, and Viṣṇudharmottara Purāḳa ii.87.11, iii.329.14.
2.
In the Nāradīya ManusaṀhitā, which does not give that ascription, it appears with a slight variation:

In case of the husband's renunciation or disappearance or impotence or loss of caste or death: in these five predicaments a woman is allowed to remarry.

3.

One who at first marrying a husband afterwards marries another may not be separated if five dishes of rice and a goat are offered by them. If five dishes of rice, goat and fees are offered, the second husband attains same world with the remarried wife.

4.
Manusmṛti v.144-147
5.
Gautama Dharma sūtra ii.6.18. Manusmṛti iii. 145-56; Yājñavalkyasmṛti i.222, 224.
6.
The custom of niyoga stands for the practice of appointing a substitute male to procreate progeny for a deceased man in his wife's body. As the following judgments show, custom came to override the scriptural provision for niyoga.

When dharmaśāstra (religious law) is controversial, a rule based on logic is to be followed. Custom is powerful, and religious law is overruled by it.

The injunction of the dharmaśāstra (that) "the brother-in-law or a sapiṇḍa or a sagotra intending to procreate a son, with the permission of the preceptor, will approach a sonless woman in the monthly period, being annointed with clarified butter," and also the rule that "a woman is ordained [to take another husband in five calamitious conditions, such as] the disappearance or death of her husband," though prescribed by the dharmaśāstra, have been abandoned in actual practice. Asahaya's interpretation of the verse naṣṭe mṛte . . . is not available, as Asahaya's commentary has not yet been obtained in its entire form.

-16-

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Faces of the Feminine in Ancient, Medieval, and Modern India
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Notes xii
  • References xii
  • Acknowledgments xv
  • Contents xvii
  • Contributors xix
  • Part One - Visions of Virtue 3
  • Notes 5
  • 1 - A Controversy Over a Verse on the Remarriage of Hindu Women 7
  • Notes 16
  • References 19
  • 2 Satī - The Event and the Ideology 21
  • Notes 30
  • References 31
  • 3 Satyavatī - The Matriarch of the Mahābhārata 33
  • Notes 46
  • References 47
  • 4 Usable Women - The Tales of Amba and Mādhavī 48
  • Notes 54
  • References 55
  • 5 Anasup - A Pativratā with Panache 56
  • Notes 66
  • References 68
  • 6 "The Wildering Gloom" - Women's Place in Buddhist History 69
  • Notes 85
  • References 85
  • 7 - The Goddess, Women, and Their Rituals in Hinduism 87
  • Notes 103
  • References 105
  • Part Two - Women and Power 107
  • 8 - The Goddess-Women Equation in Śākta Tantras 109
  • Notes 122
  • References 122
  • 9 Women's Wealth and Worship - Female Patronage of Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism in Medieval Tamilnadu 124
  • Notes 137
  • References 144
  • 10 the Goddess-Woman Nexus in Popular Religious Practice - The Cult of Manasā 148
  • Notes 159
  • References 160
  • 11 - Mīrābai in the Academy and the Politics of Identity 162
  • Notes 177
  • References 179
  • 12 Candrāvatī Rāmāyaṇa - Feminizing the Rāma-Tale 183
  • Notes 190
  • References 191
  • 13 - Women Saints in Medieval Maharashtra 192
  • Notes 199
  • References 199
  • 14 Powers Behind the Throne - Women in Early Mughal Politics 201
  • Notes 210
  • References 211
  • Part Three - Emerging Voices 213
  • Notes 216
  • References 217
  • 15 for Our Native Sisters - The Wesleyan Ladies' Auxiliary in India 219
  • Notes 231
  • References 232
  • 16 Flora Annie Steel - A Voice for Indian Women? 234
  • Notes 247
  • References 249
  • 17 - Exploring Tradition and Change Among Women in Marathi Culture 251
  • Note 269
  • References 269
  • 18 the Construction of Gender in History and Religion - The Sikh Case 270
  • Notes 279
  • References 284
  • 19 Postcolonial Identity as Feminist Fantasy - A Study of Tamil Women's Short Fiction on Dowry 287
  • Notes 295
  • References 295
  • 20 - Eroticism and the Woman Writer in Bengali Culture 297
  • Notes 302
  • 21 Women in Radical Movements in Bengal in the 1940s - The Story of the Mahilā Ātmarakṣā Samiti (women's Self-Defense League) 304
  • Notes 317
  • References 319
  • 22 the Feminist Movement in West Bengal - From the 1980s to the 1990s 322
  • Index 335
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