Issues in Advertising: The Economics of Persuasion

By David G. Tuerck | Go to book overview
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ADVERTISING INTENSITY AND
INDUSTRIAL CONCENTRATION-
AN EMPIRICAL INQUIRY,
1947-1967

Stanley I. Ornstein and Steven Lustgarten

A basic tenet of traditional industrial organization textbooks holds that large scale advertising expenditures lead to monopoly power.1 Advertising is believed to reduce price elasticity of demand and allow price to be raised above the competitive level. Resulting excess profits are said to persist because of advertising created barriers to entry due to (1) product differentiation or brand loyalty created by advertising and (2) economies of scale in advertising. In addition, supporters of this theory generally conclude that much advertising is misleading and wasteful and that consumers would benefit from restrictions on advertising.2

In contrast to this traditional view, recent literature argues that advertising increases competition3 by providing information to consumers on product quality and characteristics and by allowing new entrants to overcome existing brand loyalties. Advertising helps the more efficient firms expand their market share, thereby resulting in an improved allocation of resources. According to this view, restrictions on advertising are harmful to consumers.

The behavior of the Federal Trade Commission in recent years illustrates these contradictory views on advertising. The FTC has examined restrictions on advertising by physicians, pharmacists, and optometrists

____________________
We are indebted to Edwin W. Eckard, Jr. for computer assistance.
1
See Joe S. Bain, Industrial Organization, 2nd ed. ( New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1968), chapter 7, and Frederick M. Scherer, Industrial Market Structure and Economic Performance ( Chicago: Rand McNally, 1970), chapter 14.
2
Scherer, Industrial Market Structure, p. 344.
3
Yale Brozen, "Advertising, Concentration and Profitability" in Goldschmid and Weston, eds., Industrial Concentration: the New Learning ( Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1974), pp. 115-137; Phillip Nelson, "Advertising as Information," Journal of Political Economy, vol. 81 ( July/August 1974), pp. 729-754; Phillip Nelson , "Economic Consequences of Advertising," Journal of Business, vol. 48 ( April 1975), pp. 213-241.

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