China Only Yesterday, 1850-1950: A Century of Change

By Emily Hahn | Go to book overview

Chapter Twenty

Chang Tso-lin had accepted a loan from the Japanese. For this reason and because of certain plans of their own, they were determined to protect him. The end of the World War had loosened their grip on China; the Treaty of Versailles and the Nine-Power Treaty had cancelled their Twenty-one Demands. Nevertheless the Japanese were still in Tsingtao, and their presence in other areas of the North, while not exactly covered by written documents, was not disputed as long as the Old Marshal remained on friendly terms with them. This presence was one barrier against Chiang's making a rapid finish to his Northern Expedition, and there were two more--the Hankow forces, whose general had pulled them together and was now advancing on Nanking from the west, and the defection of that arch-defector Feng Yü-hsiang, who had promised to attack Chang Tso-lin but later changed his mind.

The Nationalists had entered Shantung and were on the last push to Peking when, as Chiang was about to lead them into Tsinan near Tsingtao, he found the way blocked by Japanese troops. He did not feel ready to take them on, and the army fell back on Hsuchao; in a short time the Northern forces had pushed it back nearly to Nanking. This reverse alarmed and angered lesser generals, and Chiang's leadership, which had survived much strain during the violent interruptions of the summer, now began to totter. The generals quarreled with him . Chiang, veteran of many such resistances, realized that the time had come to stage one of his withdrawals. He resigned from the army as he had so many times in the past, and retired to his native hills. To newspapermen who followed him he made several statements: It had been said that be sought Russia's friendship and advocated co-operation with the Communists until the break. He wished to refute this. He had always

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China Only Yesterday, 1850-1950: A Century of Change
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 4
  • Acknowledgements 7
  • Chapter One 11
  • Chapter Two 28
  • Chapter Three 41
  • Chapter Four 55
  • Chapter Five 71
  • Chapter Six 88
  • Chapter Seven 107
  • Chapter Eight 125
  • Chapter Nine 146
  • Chapter Ten 162
  • Chapter Eleven 183
  • Chapter Twelve 199
  • Chapter Thirteen 217
  • Chapter Fourteen 237
  • Chapter Fifteen 253
  • Chapter Sixteen 278
  • Chapter Seventeen 295
  • Chapter Eighteen 314
  • Chapter Nineteen 332
  • Chapter Twenty 353
  • Chapter Twenty-One 368
  • Chapter Twenty-Two 383
  • Glossary 403
  • Bibliography 407
  • Index 411
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