Ideologies, Goals, and Values

By Feliks Gross | Go to book overview

9
Strategies

Strategy and Tactics

We shall define the term strategy as an art and method of achieving individual and collective goals. Strategic goals are achieved by a combination of actions. Thus goal and actions form the two major components of strategies. Actions are also called means, and goals are called ends, for we use the term strategy in its broad and contemporary meaning and use. Originally it was a term connected solely with military action. Today, however, we speak about strategy in politics, in games, or even in achievement of personal goals. The meaning of this term has changed considerably; it has been broadened.

Hence, strategy is a pragmatic relationship between ends and means. Means are "efficient" when their choice results in achievement of ends. They are more or less efficient depending on the proper quantitative and qualitative choice of actions, quantity or quality of effort, and the resources necessary to the successful achievement of goals.

Strategy is a pragmatic design. Strategy deals with identification of efficient means in achieving goals. Hence strategy is concerned with economy of human effort in achieving desired ends. Its purpose is to achieve the best results or desired goals with the least effort, resources, and losses.

Seldom if ever are strategic goals achieved by a single thrust. Thus the road or design toward achievement of the strategic goal is plotted in terms of intermediary stages that are oriented toward immediate and intermediate target goals (objectives). Stage objectives are interdependent goals: Successful achievement of one stage objective is a condition of achieving the next one. A strategic design plots actions stage by stage. Immediate and intermediate target goals are related to the end goal. They divide, however, the entire strategy into stages. The stage objectives are arrived at in turn by a combination of actions, movements within the stage. Those actions are attached to flexible goals. This combination of

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Ideologies, Goals, and Values
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Contributions in Sociology Series Editor: Don Martindale ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures and Tables vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Introduction xxi
  • Acknowledgments xxxiii
  • Part I Ideologies 1
  • 1: The Directive and Regulatory System 3
  • 2: Ideologies--The World Outlook and Values 26
  • 3: The Structure of Ideologies 44
  • 4: The Appeal and Function of Values 58
  • 5: Definition of Values 71
  • Part II Goals 75
  • 6: Types of Goals 77
  • 7: Formation of Goals 91
  • 8: Horizontal Sequence of Goals 103
  • 9: Strategies 119
  • 10: Social Planning and Ethics 128
  • 11: The Logic of Planning 145
  • 12: Distant Goals 156
  • 13: Social Rhythm and Cyclical Goals 183
  • Part III Values 209
  • 14: Hierarchies of Values 211
  • 15: Multiple Sets of Values 237
  • 16: In Search of Universal Values 273
  • 17: Toleration and Pluralism 300
  • Bibliography 321
  • Index 337
  • About the Author 345
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