Origins: Brain and Self Organization

By Karl Pribram | Go to book overview

Figure Captions
Figure 1. Block diagram of brain model. Each signal is represented by random inputs to a number of neurons. For each signal, here red or green, there is a combination of one or more output neurons (shaded circles) which must fire in order to achieve success. The environment feeds back a signal indicating whether or not success was achieved. a) Layered network; b) Random network.
Figure 2. a) Performance vs. time for layered system with two input signals which are switched every 2000 time units or when the system is consistently successfull. After a training period during which the network self-organizes, the system enters an intelligent state with fast switching between the correct outputs. b) Same for random network; the two input signals are presented for 5000 time units unless consistent success has occured.
Figure 3. Firing patterns for "1" input (a) and "2" input (b) in the fast switching mode. The input cells for "1" and "2" are black and dark gray respectively, and the firing cells are light gray. For the "1" input, output cells 10 and 15 of the bottom row must be triggered simultaneously to achieve success; for the "2" input the output cells 7 and 12 must be triggered. c,d) The same as above but in the case where the system has relearned the correct response after removal of a block of 30 neurons (shaded area).
Figure 4. Movie showing the "fast" switching between the "1" response and the "2" response. The transition from "2" to "1" takes place through five complicated steps and back to "1" through an additional six steps.
Figure 5. Performance for the layered system, but with 30 neurons damaged after 150000 time steps. The system has relearned the correct response after 210000 time steps.
Figure 6. Same system as shown in Figure 2a, with a third input added after 150000 steps. After a confused learning period, the correct output for all three inputs is learned after 450000 time steps.
Figure 7 Pavlov's dogs. In the beginning the correct response to two different input signals (Ringing a bell, and vision of food) is the same. This is learned after a few thousand time steps (arrow A). After 40000 time steps (arrow B) the correct response to one signal is altered, i.e., the reaction of the system is supposed to switch when the input signals are switched. For a long transient period the system triggers the wrong output,

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