Origins: Brain and Self Organization

By Karl Pribram | Go to book overview
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event properties. Because this sometimes necessitates exploratory activity on the part of the perceiver, I tentatively identify Pribram's image-to-object transformation with this transformation from a continuous representation of light structure to recovery from it of environmental event structure. In auditory perception and speech perception more specifically, the transformation is from a continuous representation of structure in the air registered first in perception to recovery of sounding-event properties.A final revision I propose is simply a generalization of the concept of object. In auditory perception, there is a real sense in which the irreduceable perceivable is an event, not an object. As Gaver [6] puts it: "Sounds indicate that something has happened, that an event has occurred, that there as been an interaction of materials" (p. 22). In his taxonomy of events involving, for example, interactions of solid materials, basic level events are identified as deformations, impacts, scrapings and rolling. In short, there are no auditory objects, only auditory events.
Acknowledgments
Preparation of the manuscript was supported by NICHD Grant HD-01994 to Haskins Laboratories. I thank Michele Sancier for researching evidence for motor involvement in songbird and cricket communication.
References
[1] C. A. Fowler, "An event approach to the study of speech perception from a direct-realist perspective," Journal of Phonetics, vol. 14, pp. 3-28, 1986.
[2] C. A. Fowler, "Sound-producing sources as objects of speech perception: Rate normalization and nonspeech perception," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 88, pp. 1236-1249, 1990.
[3] C. A. Fowler, and D. J. Dekle, "Listening with eye and hand: Crossmodal contributions to speech perception," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, vol. 17, pp. 816-828, 1991.
[4] C. A. Fowler, and L. D. Rosenblum, "Duplex perception: A comparison of monosyllables and slamming doors," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, vol. 16, pp. 742-754.
[5] C. A. Fowler, and L. D. Rosenblum, "The perception of phonetic gestures," in Modularity and the motor theory of speech perception, I. G. Mattingly and M. Studdert-Kennedy, Editors, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, N.J., pp. 33-59, 1993.
[6] W. W. Gaver, "What in the world do we hear? An ecological approach to auditory event perception," Ecological Psychology, vol. 5, pp. 1-29, 1993.
[7] J. J. Gibson, The senses considered as perceptual systems. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1966.
[8] J. J. Gibson, The ecological approach to visual perception., Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979.
[9] Hall M. D. and R. E. Pastore, "Musical duplex perception: Perception of figurally-good chords with subliminal distinguishing cues," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, vol. 18, pp. 752- 762, 1992.
[10] R. R. Hoy, J. Hahn and R. C. Paul, "Hybrid cricket auditory behavior: Evidence for genetic coupling in animal communication." Science, vol. 195, pp. 82-83, 1977.
[11] A. M. Liberman, "On finding that speech is special," American Psychologist, vol. 37, pp. 148-167, 1982.
[12] A. M. Liberman, F. S. Cooper, D. P. Shankweiler, M. G. Studdert-Kennedy, "Perception of the speech code," Psycholgical Review, vol. 74, pp. 431-461, 1967.
[13] A. M. Liberman, P. Delattre, F. S. Cooper and L. Gerstman, "The role of consonant-vowel transitions in the perception of the stop and nasal consonants." Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 68 (whole number 379), 1954.

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