THE moralists of olden times used to argue whether gratitude was or was not to be numbered among the duties and the virtues. Now such discussions are at an end; not because the question has been settled, but because interest in ethical problems has diminished with the decline of the religious spirit and has not been able to find as get an adequate practical substitute in the cultivation of philosophy. This weakening may be perceived especially in the forms of culture most remote from their religious origins, the intellectual cultures, namely. There we find no trace of sensitiveness to those delicate "moral scruples" which are to ethics what refinement of taste is to art and to the philosophy of art.
However, looking through the old treatises. on morals and following the classifications and the arguments that are there debated as to gratias agere, gratias habere, and gratias re