growing canon of "Lives of Saints" for women. Morrison's novels can be read as
part of the modern feminine gospel. Thoughout the essay we have shown how
our reading as a whole is biracial and how each critic's approach has enriched
and enlarged the other's. Our approach has been the "both/and" approach that Ann Bedford Ulanov, a theologian, describes as matriarchal wisdom. Our approach has not been the patriarchal reasoning of "either/or"
35 that would select
one of our readings as more right than the other. With ease and affection we
have encouraged the other in her diverse reading. We believe this is a natural
gift of being women, to respect the other's individuation even when it challenges our own.
Toni Morrison, The Bluest Eye ( New York: Holt, Rinehart ∧ Winston, 1970).
Toni Morrison, Sula ( New York: New American Library, 1973).
Toni Morrison, Tar Baby ( New York: Knopf, 1981).
Toni Morrison, Song of Solomon ( New York: Knopf, 1977).
Barbara Christian, Black Feminist Criticism ( New York: Pergamon Press, 1985), p. 48.
Janice Hale, "The Black Woman and Child Rearing", in The Black Woman, ed. LaFrances Rodgers-Rose ( Beverly Hills: Sage, 1980), p. 80.
Mari Evans, ed., Black Women Writers ( New York: Anchor Press, 1984), p. 344.
Janice Hale, "The Black Woman and Child Rearing", in Black Woman, ed. LaFrances Rodgers-Rose, p. 81.
John Mbiti, The Prayers of African Religion ( Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1975), p. 102.
Carrie Allen McCray, "The Black Woman and Family Roles", in Black Woman, ed. LaFrances Rodgers-Rose, pp. 70-71. I write further on this role of the Black mother,
specifically in terms of how motherhood is historically a theme, either literally or spiritually, for Black women writers in my book The Character of the Word: The Fiction of Zora
Neale Hurston ( Greenwood Press, 1986).
Stephanie Demetrakopoulos, Listening to Our Bodies ( Boston: Beacon Press, 1984),
see ch. 7. "Femininity as Entrapment: The Older Woman in Toni Morrison's Song of
There are two excellent articles on Käthe Kollwitz's visual art, drawings, paintings
and sculpture. She commonly enlarges hands and shoulders to emphasize the nurturing,
sheltering elements of her women; she arranges them standing together in fortress formation to protect the children. See Estella Lauther and
Dominque Rozenberg, "The Transformation of the Mother in Works of Káthe Kollwitz", Anima 5 (Spring 1979): 89-98; Elizabeth Curry, "Káthe Kollwitz as Role Model for the Older Woman", Chrysalis 7
( 1979): 55-70.
Hestia is a very complex figure as are all the goddesses; see my essay on "Hestia,
Goddess of the Hearth: Notes on an Oppressed Archetype", Spring, An Annual of Archetypal Psychology and Jungian Thought ( Irving, Texas: Spring Publications, 1979): 55-77.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: The Other within Us:Feminist Explorations of Women and Aging.
Contributors: Marilyn Pearsall - Editor.
Publisher: Westview Press.
Place of publication: Boulder, CO.
Publication year: 1997.
Page number: 193.
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