# Human-Computer Interaction: Ergonomics and User Interfaces - Vol. 1

By Hans-Jörg Bullinger; Jürgen Ziegler | Go to book overview

FRONTIER: An Application of A Pen Based
Interface to An ITS For Guiding Fraction
Calculation

Kenzi Watanabe(1), Teisuke Yamaguchi(1), Hiroyuki Egashiral(1), Joe Ito(1),
Yasuhisa Okazaki(1), Hiroki Kondo(1), Masayoshi Okamoto(2)
and Takatoshi Yoshikawa (2)
(1) Saga University, Japan. (2) SANYO Electric Co., Ltd., Japan.
(1) 1, Honjyo, Saga 840-85 10, Japan.
TEL: +81-952-28-8828 FAX: +81-952-28-8650
E-mail: watanabe@is.saga-u.ac.jp

1
Introduction

We have developed an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) named as "FRONTIER" (a FRaction calculatiON TraInER), which has a pen based interface using a pen X terminal. FRONTIER enables a student writes fraction expressions using a pen.

Fraction calculation is one of the most difficult subject in mathematical education in Japanese elementary schools. A lot of people expect that an ITS, which has flexible and individualized tutoring facilities, for fraction calculation will be developed.

We have developed an ITS for guiding fraction. Distinctive feature of the system is that the system can recognize student's context of solving processes and guide them in accordance with their context ( Watanabe, Okazaki, Tadaki and Kondo 1994).

As using this system, a student inputs not only a final answer but also its solving processes. Since he/she should input many fraction expressions, we develop a pen based interface to enable he/she can input and correct fraction expressions easily, naturally and quickly.

A purpose of our research is to develop an ITS for practical use, so that we must achieve that every function of the system, especially response of the interface and

-238-

If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

#### Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.
Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.
Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
• Saved book/article
• Highlights
• Quotes/citations
• Notes
• Bookmarks
Notes

#### Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

#### Cited page

Human-Computer Interaction: Ergonomics and User Interfaces - Vol. 1

Settings

#### Settings

Typeface
Text size Reset View mode
Search within

Look up

#### Look up a word

• Dictionary
• Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 1356

## Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

## Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

## Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.