Human-Computer Interaction: Ergonomics and User Interfaces - Vol. 1

By Hans-Jörg Bullinger; Jürgen Ziegler | Go to book overview
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(t=18.2, df=3, p<0.05). An analysis of user reaction time also showed that both Factor A and Factor B are also significant; Factor A, F(1,1)= 10.18, p<0.05 and Factor B, F(1,1)=0.65, p<0.05.

Process Outcome
Without description
No music knowledge
97.22% 79.55%
Without description
With music knowledge
94.78% 80.54%
Without description
No music knowledge
95.45% 80.99%
With description
With music knowledge
95.43% 81.10%
Table 4. % of subjects successfully identified the processes and outcomes
Without music
knowledge
With music
knowledge
Without description 5.57seconds 5.61seconds
With description 5.11seconds 4.73seconds
Table 5. Average time to recognise the meaning of the earcons

Leamability is the major limiting factor constraining the usability of earcons. In many applications, earcons can be designed in a structured way, thus allowing large number of earcons to be used. The results of this study showed that subjects learn a large number of structured earcons significantly faster and with less errors if they know the association between the abstract sounds and the objects/events they represent. An implication of this finding is that earcon designers need to give due consideration in terms of mapping between the sound dimensions and the events they represent. This consideration is particularly important when more dimensions of sounds are used to construct a large family of structured earcons.


4
References

Brewster, S. A., Wright, P. C. & Edwards, A.D.N. 1993, "An Evaluation of Earcons for Use in Auditory Human-Computer Interfaces", Proc of ACM INTERCHI '93, Amsterdam, pp. 222-227.

Leung, Y. K., Smith, S., Parker, S. and Martin, R. ( 1997), "Learning and retention of auditory warnings", Proc of the 4th ICAD, Palo Alto, pp.129-133.

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