(countermeasures applied to the representation of task). As an example, if S1 in Cognitive State is activated from an S3 Mediation value due to external factors (e.g., fatigue), this will produce Error. A countermeasure might be to implement an S5 Mediation value in an effort to raise the cognitive state to a value more homogenous with the S3 Task State being assessed by the decision maker.
The above discussion argues that displays can be created that drive an individual decision maker toward a particular kind of cognition. Anderson ( 1991) has written extensively on the adaptive qualities of cognitive functioning. Further, he notes that cognition is profoundly influenced and constrained by the properties of the environment in which the decision maker is embedded. This position is echoed throughout the above discourse in views that provide a formal approach to support individuals in specific operational contexts.
Anderson, J. R. ( 1991). "Is human cognition adaptive?" Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14( 3), 471-517.
Dunwoody, P. T., Haarbauer, E., Mahan, R. P., Marino, C. J., & Tang, C. C. (In Press). "Cognitive adaptation and its consequences: A test of cognitive continuum theory". Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.
Hammond, K. R., Hamm, R. M., Grassia, J., & Pearson, T. ( 1987). "Direct comparison of the efficacy of of intuitive and analytical cognition in expert judgments". IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, SMC- 17( 5), 753- 770
Hammond, K. R. ( 1996). Human judgment and social policy: Irreducible uncertainty, inevitable error, unavoidable injustice. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hammond, K. R., & Doyle, J. K. ( 1991). Effects of stress on judgment and decision making: Boulder: University of Colorado, Center for Research on Judgment and Policy.
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