Human-Computer Interaction: Ergonomics and User Interfaces - Vol. 1

By Hans-Jörg Bullinger; Jürgen Ziegler | Go to book overview
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participation of the elderly in designing and developing modern products will their needs be truly met.As a whole, empirical tests using multiple indices are important to properly evaluate the symbols on their usability especially across different user groups. The evaluation method should also simulate actual usage scenarios to determine the suitability of each symbol alone, but together with the other symbols as well. This can be exemplified by the elderly and US subject groups who chose symbol sets quite different from the Asians. Hit rate is an important parameter, but must be tested under different user scenarios (spontaneous identification and cued responses) to determine if the symbols indeed are understood with and without cues. At the same time hits rates alone are not enough. Subjective certainties, false alarms (confusions), preferences, and even missing values are equally useful factors needed to make a deeper analysis. They enable the tester to see other often subtle but important differences (i.e. subjective biases, confusing symbols to other referents and symbols) on how users perceive and understand symbols.
To Mr. Martin Böcker, of Siemen's-Nixdorf and ETSI Human Factors Group, for his generosity not only in sharing his resources on icons and pictograms, but more so for unselfishly sharing his insights and ideas about the study.
To the National Communications Research Board of Sweden (Kommunikations Forsknings Beredningen,KFB) for the financial and logistical support


Brelsford, J. W., Wogalter, M. S., and Scoggins, J. A., ( 1994). Enhancing comprehension and retention of safety-related pictorials, In Proceedings of the Human Factors Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting, pp. 836-840.

Böcker, M. ( 1993). A multiple index approach for the evaluation of pictogrwns, In: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Human Factors in Telecommunications, Darmstadt, Germany, May 11-14, Heidelberg: R. v. Decker's Verlag, G. Schenck GmbH, pp. 73-85.

Davies, S., Haines, H., Norris, B., and Wilson, J., ( 1998). "Safety pictograms: are they getting the message across"? Applied Ergonomics, 29, 1, 15-23.


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