Human-Computer Interaction: Ergonomics and User Interfaces - Vol. 1

By Hans-Jörg Bullinger; Jürgen Ziegler | Go to book overview
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model when the development meeting is called to analyse the users' work situation, may inhibit the recording of potentially significant contributions which are made in the meeting. It may be more effective to focus a meeting on the relevant form of model but also to have permanently visible, and accessible for changes, other forms of representation and structuring. For example, when prototyping it might be productive also to have available modifiable task models and requirements specifications in which to assimilate contributions to work situation analysis or design and requirements analysis.

A key question remains: what forms of representation may provide effective support for cooperative requirements analysis? Such external shared representations must both present the recorded specification of previously determined requirements and facilitate the identification and public recording of new requirements. Crucially, they must be comprehensible and modifiable by both professional developers and users.

A potential partial solution to underspecification is to involve the implementors as participants in the earlier development activities, so making them partners in the personal common ground which is constructed therein. This, however, is not an approach which could be followed in many software development situations, especially very large projects with multiple development teams each with several members. The most effective and efficient means of resolving specification and implementation gaps due to gaps in common ground is likely to remain rapid iteration around the design, evaluate, redesign cycle.


Clark, H. H. ( 1996). Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

O'Neill, E. J. ( 1996). Task model support for cooperative analysis. Proceedings of CHI'96 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Conference Companion, pp. 259-60. New York: ACM Press.

O'Neill, E., Johnson, P. & Johnson, H. ( 1999). "Representations and userdeveloper interaction in cooperative analysis and design". Human Computer Interaction, 14 ( 1).

Palmer, S. E. ( 1978). "Fundamental aspects of cognitive representation". In Rosch, E. & Lloyd, B. B. (Eds.): Cognition and categorization, pp. 259-303. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Rudd, J., Stern, K. & Isensee, S. ( 1996). Low vs high-fidelity prototyping debate. Interactions, January 1996, pp. 76-85.

Schuler, D. & Namioka, A. ( 1993). Participatory design: principles and practices. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.


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