Human-Computer Interaction: Ergonomics and User Interfaces - Vol. 1

By Hans-Jörg Bullinger; Jürgen Ziegler | Go to book overview

Bringing In the Social Perspective:
User Centred Design
Jan GulliksenDepartment for Human Computer Interaction, Uppsala university,
Lägerhyddsvägen 18, SE-75237 Uppsala, Sweden. and Center for user-oriented
IT-design (CID), Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
1
Introduction
The social setting of end users does not only influence their task performance and attitudes towards computer systems but also their willingness to contribute their knowledge actively to the design of artefacts. Standish Group [ Dennis, 1995] analysed IT-development projects in US showing that 31,1 % of the projects were aborted without having accomplished their goals, 52,7 % were completed with serious delays and at much higher costs (in general the costs increased with 189 %), and 16,2 % were completed within the budget and time frame. The most important factors for success in the projects that where completed within the timeframe were; user participation, management support, a clear requirement specification and good planning.Successful software development requires usable systems. ISO 9241 defines Usability as; the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve's specifled goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction, in a specified context of use[ISO 9241].To design systems that are usable in a specific use situation, active involvement of representatives of the user population is essential, but no guarantee. Therefore user centred design is a necessity for designing usable systems. Our view on user centred design (UCD) of usable systems is based on ISO draft international standard on human centred design process for interactive systems [ISO 13407] and Gould & Lewis principles for designing for usability [ Gould & Lewis, 1985], that is:
Work controlled development. Early focus on users and tasks. The designer must understand the users, their cognitive behaviour, attitudes and the characteristics of the work. Appropriate allocation of function between the

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