Environmental Injustice in the United States: Myths and Realities

By James P. Lester; David W. Allen et al. | Go to book overview
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Once again, we report consistent results for our pollution potential measure--this measure was related to all indicators of toxic releases in the hypothesized fashion. The consistent performance of this measure means that this key concept must be included in any future environmental injustice research.

Elimination of extreme outliers, to correct the skewed distribution of total TRI releases, was partially achieved by recoding data on nineteen out of 466 cities. The cities that were recoded are: Omaha, Nebraska, 334342.4 to 17926.4; Beaumont, Texas, 47361.0 to 17926.3; Warden, Ohio, 42927.6 to 17926.2; St. Louis, Missouri, 40806.9 to 17926.1; Dearborn, Michigan, 40792.9 to 17926.0; Houston, Texas, 36995.2 to 17925.9; Detroit, Michigan, 32214.4 to 17924.8; Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 30392.4 to 17924.7; Victoria, Texas, 29789.2 to 17924.6; Louisville, Kentucky, 26952.8 to 17924.5; Chicago, Illinois, 26233.8 to 17924.4; Cleveland, Ohio, 26031.6 to 17924.3; Canton, Ohio, 25547.0 to 17924.2; Indianapolis, Indiana, 23482.3 to 17924.1; Cheyenne, Wyoming, 21641.1 to 17924.0; Fort Wayne, Indiana, 20923.4 to 17923.9; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 20594.1 to 17923.8; Muncie, Indiana, 202215.2 to 17923.7; and Phoenix, Arizona, 19009.5 to 17923.6. Once recoded, the values were subjected to a square root transformation (with the resultant values multiplied by ten to restore variance) in order to normalize--insofar as possible--the univariate distribution of this measure. The descriptive statistics for the original and recoded/transformed values of total TRI releases are shown below:
MeanStd. D.SkewnessKutosisVarianceCV
Original 4001.6 16640.7 17.03 332.07 .276915E+.09 4.15
Recode 2873.6 4560.0 2.17 3.92 .207942E+.08 1.58
Transformed 401.6 355.4 1.18 .59 126341.1 .88
Standardized .00 1.00 1.18 .59 1.00 .380209E+.15
Elimination of extreme outliers, to correct the skewed distributions for stack air and for fugitive air TRI releases in 1,000 pounts, was partially achieved by recoding data. For stack air, nine out of 466 cities were recoded: Richmond, Virginia, 3302.6 to 3124.6; Savannah, Georgia, 3340.8 to 3124.7; Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 3403.4 to 3124.8; Mobile, Alabama, 3931.2 to 3124.9; Chicago, Illinois, 4028.6 to 2125.0; Beaumont, Texas, 4633.9 to 3125.1; Grand Rapids, Michigan, 5124.2 to 3125.2; Louisville, Kentucky, 6859.8 to 3125.3; Rochester, New York, 7531.2 to 3125.4. For fugitive air TRI releases, a total of 38 out of 466 cities were recoded: Riverside, California, 725 to 669.1; Detroit, Michigan, 752.5 to 669.2; Cincinnati, Ohio, 780.9 to 669.3; High- point, North Carolina, 803.2 to 669.4; Toledo, Ohio, 804.9 to 669.5; Lincoln, Nebraska, 801.1 to 669.6; Cleveland, Ohio, 819.1 to 669.7; Mobile, Alabama, 870.7 to 669.8; Dallas, Texas, 879.9 to 669.9; Los Angeles, California, 898.0 to 670.0; Corpus Christi, Texas, 905.8 to 670.1; Decatur, Illinois, 905.9 to 670.2; Rochester, New York, 914.2 to 670.3; Antioch, California, 925.9 to 670.4; Portland, Oregon, 980.7 to 670.5; Wilmington, North Carolina, 1135.7 to 670.6; North Charleston, South Carolina, 1187.7 to 670.7; Indianapolis, Indiana, 1198.8 to 670.8; Columbus, Ohio, 1336.4 to 670.9; St. Louis, Missouri, 1423.0 to 671.0; Wichita Falls, Texas, 1462.1 to 671.1; Chicago, Illinois, 1620.2 to 671.2; Odessa, Texas, 1790.0 to 671.3; Birmingham, Alabama, 1997.8 to 671.4; Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1878.7 to 671.5; Wichita, Kansas, 2391.0 to 671.6; Port Arthur, Texas, 2412.8 to 671.7; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2415.0 to 671.8; Richmond, Virginia, 2417.6 to 671.9; Longview, Texas, 2502.5 to 672.0; Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 2538.1 to 672.2; Baytown, Texas, 2701.6 to 672.2; Memphis, Tennessee, 2933.8 to 672.3; Louisville, Kentucky, 3572.8 to 672.4; West Allis, Wisconsin, 3715.0 to 672.5; Beaumont, Texas, 2701.6 to 672.6; Gary, Indiana, 4718.1 to 672.7; Houston, Texas, 5798.8 to 672.8. Once recoded, the values for each measure were subjected to square root transformations (with the resultant values multiplied by ten to restore variance) in order to normalized--insofar as possible--the univari


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