Yearbook of International Environmental Law - Vol. 7

By Günther Handl; Jutta Brunnée et al. | Go to book overview

10. WEST ASIA

A. BAHRAIN

(1) Environmental Legislation

Bahrain enacted major environmental legislation in July 1996 (Amiri Decree No. 21 of 1996). Unlike previous legislation, which dealt with specific environmental issues, the Amiri Decree represents a first attempt at comprehensive environmental legislation in Bahrain. It establishes an Authority for Environmental Affairs within the framework of the Ministry of Housing, Municipality and Environment, which will have, inter alia, the power to draw up plans and policies as well as to supervise their implementation in cooperation with all other relevant authorities. Since a coordinating body has yet to be established, it remains to be seen how such coordination will be achieved.

The Amiri Decree covers nature reserves and protected areas, the marine environment, occupational hazards, and toxic and hazardous waste. It restricts and controls the use of toxic chemicals and pesticides and the emission of pollutants from various activities, including construction, excavation, and transportation. It also requires environmental impact assessment for select projects and waste treatment facilities for handling any waste generated by such projects. One significant feature of this law is the incorporation of provisions on liability establishing detailed penalties, including closure of premises, criminal sanctions for certain violations, as well as fines that reach up to US$135,000. Another law, Decree No. 16, issued in September, designates the Hawar Island and its coastal zone a protected area and a sanctuary for marine life and other wild fauna and flora.


(2) International Conventions

In 1996, Bahrain ratified the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (depositing the instrument of ratification on 29 August). After ratification, Bahrain requested assistance from the UN Development Programme (UNDP) to carry out its country programme on biological diversity. It is expected that this programme will commence in 1997. By the end of the year, a national committee was still studying the possibility of ratifying the UN Convention on Desertification. A decision was expected in early 1997.

As a party to the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, Bahrain was classified as an Art. 5 country eligible to receive assistance from the Protocol's Multilateral Fund. With such assistance, two technical training workshops were held and the ozone country programme was completed. The country programme, outlining an action plan to reduce national consumption of ozone depleting substances (ODS), was submitted through the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and was approved by the Fund in 1996. A project for institutional strengthening to

-317-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Yearbook of International Environmental Law - Vol. 7
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 766

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.