Yearbook of International Environmental Law - Vol. 7

By Günther Handl; Jutta Brunnée et al. | Go to book overview

to choose between the two targets. Japan's per-capita output is lower than the average per-capita level of the major industrialized countries due to its efforts with regard to energy efficient emission-control technologies.

In November, at the third meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in Argentina, Japan's delegate recalled that Japan, firmly recognizing the necessity of protecting the natural environments of developing countries, provided, inter alia, official development grant assistance to "Parks on the Verge of Crisis" projects. He also noted that on the domestic front, the Japan had established its own "national strategy" as set called for in the Convention, in October 1995, and was implementing this strategy in a comprehensive and systematic manner.

At the eighth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol in Costa Rica, November 19-27, during the discussion to the size of replenishment of the Multilateral Fund and three-year rolling business plan for the period 1997-99, Japan stressed the importance of the principle of cost-effectiveness, bearing in mind that the need for funds elsewhere was steadily increasing while the availability of resources was limited.


(3) Judicial Decisions and Other Developments

On December 26, a landmark ruling by the Takamatsu District Court ordered an industrial disposal company to pay §11.85 million in compensation to the inhabitants of Teshima, a tiny island in the Seto Inland Sea, and to remove the industrial waste from its disposal site. It was the first judicial decision on a legal dispute involving waste disposal operations and residents in neighboring areas, and was believed to have a major impact on similar pending issues throughout the country.

It should be noted in this connection that according to the Maritime Safety Agency's annual report published on November 1, Japan dumped 43.32 million tons of waste into the sea in 1996, either as waste, simple, or to reclaim land. Japan had been disposing of a similar amount of waste at sea in the past five years, despite growing calls for a ban on ocean dumping among the parties to the London Dumping Convention.

Shinya Murase


B. CHINA

(1) Introduction

In 1996, China concluded, ratified and gave effect to international treaties and implemented "soft" international environmental law. Domestic supervision and enforcement of international environmental law was strengthened, especially in respect of the Basel Convention and the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). However, problems in implementation continued to exist. In order to solve these problems further

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