Mass Media, Modernity, and Development: Arab States of the Gulf

By Fayad E. Kazan | Go to book overview

4
Findings

As has been stated earlier, the media scales utilized in this study consisted of several dimensions of media variables. These variables included number of media respondents used; kinds of media (local, regional, foreign, print, electronic etc.); respondents' credibility ratings of media; their interest in and satisfaction with media and with its content categories; and the duration of time they spent with each kind of media. Furthermore, composite scores based on averaged ratings of credibility, interest, and satisfaction were constructed to serve as additional media and media content variables. Since media impact or influence contains both qualitative and quantitative aspects, the media scales subsumed both of these aspects within their structure. Consequently, about 165 variables were constructed and used out of about 1,200 variables in testing mass media relationships with modernity and stress among Gulf respondents.

As an analogy, the author conceived of himself as a fisherman possibly going on his only fishing trip to the Gulf. Realizing that this might be his last chance at fishing, the author threw about 150 nets (variables in this case) into the Gulf water hoping to catch as many fish as possible. Now it is appropriate to look at the relationships between media and attitudinal modernity and stress that the author caught in his nets. The author's catch included 56 respondents exposed solely to local media, 518 exposed to both local and regional media and 767 respondents exposed to local, regional, and foreign media.

Although the respondents in the study can be classified into many categories based on gender, career, or the type of media to which they were exposed (local, local-regional, local- regional-foreign) for the research purposes at hand, the author focused on the primary classifications to which the respondents originally belonged, for instance, undergraduate university students versus civil servants within each Gulf country and across the six Gulf countries. Hence, the author had 16 comparable groups at hand, classified as follows:

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Mass Media, Modernity, and Development: Arab States of the Gulf
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword xv
  • Preface xvii
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • 4- Findings 121
  • Appendix C The Analysis Tables 255
  • Bibliography 269
  • Index 281
  • About the Author *
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