Turning the Century: Essays in Media and Cultural Studies

By Carol A. Stabile | Go to book overview
Inc., the film's producer, $25,000 to delay the film's release until after six states' upcoming prohibition referendums. Bosworth declined ( AFI Catalog, 1988, 475).
57.
Moving Picture World, August 1, 1914: 707.
58.
AFI Catalog 1988, 475.
59.
Applications, 1916, Pennsylvania State Board of Censors, Pennsylvania State Archives, Harrisburg.
60.
PMPB 1, 7 ( May 22, 1915): 10.
62.
Eliminations, 1915, Pennsylvania State Board of Censors, Pennsylvania State Archives, Harrisburg.
63.
Nixon Theatre Company v. Joseph G. Armstrong, Mayor of the City of Pittsburgh, Court of Common Pleas of Allegheny County, No. 1247, October Term, 1915. See the Appendix to this chapter. Also see Fleener-Marzec 1980.
64.
Nixon Theatre Company v. Joseph G. Armstrong, 3.
65.
See revenues and budgets in the annual reports of the Pennsylvania State Board of Censors, 1915-1917, Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg. Self-sustaining government institutions are by their nature difficult to eliminate, there being little economic incentive to do so. It is therefore no surprise that the state board lasted until the mid-1950s, being one of the last two in the country to disband.
66.
The most likely reason for a film's being shown without the board's seal of approval was financial: a distributor's effort to spare the expense of $1 per reel for duplicating prints of an approved film. Such attempts at economizing sometimes caused friction between local exhibitors and distributors ( PMPB 3, 31 [ November 15, 1916]: 1).
67.
Report of the Pennsylvania State Board of Censors, 1915.
68.
Report of the Pennsylvania State Board of Censors, 1916. A brief article of March 1917 notes that in that week all but four of the city's approximately 20 exchangemen were cited and forced to pay fines for neglecting to make ordered eliminations ( PMPB 3, 47 [ March 14, 1917]:1).
69.
PMPB 1, 9 ( June 28, 1914): 1-3.
70.
PMPB 1, 2 ( April 22, 1914): cover.
71.
PMPB 1, 9 ( June 9, 1914): 2.
72.
"Advise Your Patrons of Censors Cuts," PMPB 3, 1 ( November 15, 1916): 1.
73.
PMPB 4, 11 ( July 4, 1917):1. The article notes that the amendment was most likely directed at the Pitt Theater, in Oakland, where the manager paid local talent to "enact eliminated portions on the stage."
74.
PMPB 3, 27 ( October 18, 1916): 10.
75.
Report of the Pennsylvania State Board of Censors, 1917.
76.
This occurred a full two years after the Supreme Court reversed its Mutual v. Ohio decision, in Burstyn v. Wilson.

References

Abel, Richard. 1984. French Cinema: The First Wave, 1915-1929. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

American Film Institute. 1988. The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States: Feature Films, 1911-1920. Ed. Patricia Hanson. Los Angeles: University of California (UC) Press.

-98-

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