The Long War: Dictatorship and Revolution in El Salvador

By James Dunkerley | Go to book overview
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APPENDIX ONE
CHRONOLOGY
1821 Independence from Spain
1823 United Provinces of Central America declared independent
from Mexico
1833 Peasant rebellion led by Anastasio Aquino
1847 El Salvador declared a sovereign republic
1859 Gen. Barrios ( 1859-63) introduces first measures to
encourage coffee cultivation
1879-82 Expropriation of communal lands under Zaldivar regime
( 1876-85)
1909-31 Political power monopolised by Meléndez-Quinoñez clan
1931 Amid rising social conflict and economic crisis, liberal
President Araujo overthrown by Gen. Hernández Martínez
1932 Peasant rebellion inspired by PCS and suppressed with great
loss of life by Martínez, who consolidates his dictatorship
1944 Martínez foils coup attempt but is forced to resign (April);
replaced by Gen. Menéndez, who calls elections. Coup
(October) led by Col. Aguirre allows Gen. Castaneda Castro
to win poll
1948 Coup (December) gives power to Col. Osorio
1954 Guatemalan regime of Col. Arbenz overthrown (June) by
CIA-backed invasion
1956 Elections bring Col. Lemus to power
1960 Coup (26 October) gives power to military-civilian junta,
which calls free elections
1961 Coup (25 January) overthrows junta, which is replaced by a
'Directorate' controlled by Col. Rivera. Alliance for Progress
declared. Bay of Pigs leads to complete break between US
and Cuba
1962 Rivera 'elected' president; PCS attempt at guerrilla fails

-236-

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