Academia in Upheaval: Origins, Transfers, and Transformations of the Communist Academic Regime in Russia and East Central Europe

By Michael David-Fox; György Péteri | Go to book overview

politically influential role of individual scientists and academic communities in the institutionalization of scientific knowledge. Equally significant is the extension of their influence to broader arenas of social change. The historical data in these cases clearly demonstrate that Soviet scholars were not so totally constrained by the Communist Party elite that they could not act decisively in their own interests, nor were East Central Europeans immobilized by the extension of Soviet power westward. Scholars in the USSR and East Central Europe asserted agency over a wide variety of issues, from philosophical interpretations of scientific theories to the infrastructure of research and higher education. We come away from this volume, therefore, with heightened respect for those who had the courage to shape the history of academia at times of political and social upheaval in the past, and with a deeper appreciation for the unfinished business of academia today.


NOTES

The author expresses her appreciation to Mark B. Adams for his comments on an earlier draft of this chapter.

1.
Joseph Ben-David, The Scientist's Role in Society ( Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1984), 75.
2.
L. M. Gokhberg and O. R. Shuvalova, Obshchestvennoe mnenie o nauke ( Moscow: Tsentr issledovanii i statistiki nauki, 1997).
3.
See Susan E. Cozzens and Thomas F. Gieryn, eds., Theories of Science in Society ( Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990).
4.
See, for example, Michael Mulkay, Sociology of Science: A Sociological Pilgrimage ( Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991), and Loren R. Graham , Science, Philosophy, and Human Behavior in the Soviet Union ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1987).
5.
Loren R. Graham, Science in Russia and the Soviet Union ( New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 99-120, and case studies in Graham, Science, Philosophy, and Human Behavior.
6.
An artifact is anything artificial (i.e., made by humans), including both material objects and nonmaterial constructs. The author uses the term in this chapter to refer to nonmaterial constructs.
7.
For a review of the classical literature on technique, see Langdon Winner , Autonomous Technology: Technics-Out-of-Control as a Theme in Political Thought ( Cambridge: MIT Press, 1977).
8.
Loren R. Graham, What Have We Learned About Science and Technology from the Russian Experience? ( Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), 15-16.
9.
Barrington Moore, Jr., Soviet Politics: The Dilemma of Power ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950).
10.
Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972).
11.
See David Joravsky, The Lysenko Affair ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970).

-317-

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