The quality of state intervention depends on the quality of democracy, and this, in turn, depends on the effectiveness of accountability by which the governments are forced to justify their acts to the population ( Przeworski 1995). The question of greater inclusion is how to make the state a real instrument for serving common objectives ( Sartori 1991).
The state should coordinate decentralization, so that it does not reinforce inequalities; it should develop shares with the various institutions of civil society, calling on them to carry out their social functions; decentralize without corporatization for greater participation of special interests and solidarity groups, conditions essential for the promotion of the collective good of education; adopt modern systems of social protection, with responsible bureaucracies. It is clear that the means of decentralizing education should be distinct and adapted to the needs of the country, considering the regional distribution of income and wealth. Where resources are much greater, the teachers are much better trained and have much better material conditions.
There is no way of postponing the question of salary policy in the educational field. The consequences of extremely low teacher salaries is profound. The salary scales and promotion rules for teachers should be made equal to those of other professionals, such as those of the Judiciary, for example, whose incentives are progressive, including the promise of working in distant locations and, little by little, moving closer to these professionals' place of origin.
Greater sensitivity is needed for the implementation of teachers' training programs, especially for teachers from the lowest socioeconomic segments. In the municipalities of subregions, especially those of strong local power, the government should break with conservative structures, understanding that their elites are not interested in educating the masses. The educational bureaucracies in these municipalities should be transformed in order to serve their respective populations.
Educational policies should center themselves on mechanisms of institutional innovation for a new political pact in the field of education, giving rise to new forms of management that take account of its role in the social area of education, establishing conditions for the implementation of changes whose necessity already is too well known. The role of the state in education is that of active agent in the implementation of institutional mechanisms, intervening effectively in redistribution. It is in this sense that social policy cannot be delayed, with the responsibility of bringing to effective citizenship the thousands of individuals excluded from basic social rights. Finally, the essential role of the state is to prepare the individual for citizenship and for democracy.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Publication information: Book title: Schooling for Success:Preventing Repetition and Dropout in Latin American Primary Schools. Contributors: Laura Randall - Editor, Joan B. Anderson - Editor. Publisher: M. E. Sharpe. Place of publication: Armonk, NY. Publication year: 1999. Page number: 50.