Schooling for Success: Preventing Repetition and Dropout in Latin American Primary Schools

By Laura Randall; Joan B. Anderson | Go to book overview

question of quality improvement is the major priority of the public policy agenda in the field of education.

To meet the demand defined by the New Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education (LDB) -- Law no. 9,394, dated December 24,1996 -- in 1997, the Ministry of Education coordinated elaboration of the new National Education Plan (PNE), projecting a series of goals to be attained over the next ten years. The first stage of this debate was a wide-ranging process of consultation with all segments of the education sector. The National Education Plan had its first public hearing in Congress November 26, 1998. It is expected that the hearing will be concluded in 1999. Moreover, on defining a deadline of one year for formulation of the PNE, the LDB simultaneously instituted the Decade of Education, scheduled for the period from 1998 to 2007.

Brazil is now immersed in a profound process of debate on education policies and reforms that has mobilized not only the different levels of government authority, but also various segments of society, all with the fundamental aim of fostering a quality leap in Brazilian education. The conditions are highly favorable since a broad consensus has already been reached on the strategic importance of education as a fundamental requirement for the full exercise of citizenship and as the underlying capital for the nation's economic and social development.


Notes
1.
This demand also extends to the private education sector, as the clientele exerts pressure to obtain educational quality compatible with the value of monthly payments.
2.
Taking the three spheres of government as a whole, 1995 public investments in Brazilian education came to 4.6 percent of gross domestic product.
3.
Among the measures taken with this in mind, special mention should be made of decentralization of the National School Lunch Program, initiation of funding transfers directly to public schools, and creation of the Fund for the Maintenance and Development of Primary Education and Teacher Improvement, instituted by Constitutional Amendment no. 14, dated September 12, 1996, and regulated by Federal Law no. 9,424, dated December 26, 1996.
4.
The author has been Minister of Education and Sports since January 1, 1995.
5.
The concept of basic education used in Brazil encompasses three levels of education: preschool, primary, and secondary.
6.
Constitutional Amendment no. 14, promulgated on September 12, 1997.
7.
Federal Law no. 9,424, dated December 26, 1996, regulated this fund and granted states the right to anticipate implementation provided authorizing legislation was approved at the state level. The northern state of Pará took the initiative and implemented the fund on July 1, 1996. Its work since that time has served as a reference for the other states.
8.
These principal resources include the following funds and taxes: State Revenue Sharing Fund (FPE), Municipal Revenue Sharing Fund (FPM), state quota of the Industrialized Products Tax (IPI) and Tax on the Circulation of Merchandise and Services (ICMS), and also include transfers from the federal government to the states, Federal District and municipalities effected in the form of financial compensation for revenue losses consequent upon the removal of taxation from export operations (Complementary Law no. 87, dated December 13, 1996).

-87-

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Schooling for Success: Preventing Repetition and Dropout in Latin American Primary Schools
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Tables and Graphs ix
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Part I - Introduction and Overview 1
  • References 22
  • Notes 31
  • References 31
  • References 42
  • Note 50
  • General References 51
  • References 59
  • Part II - Basic Education Systems 61
  • Notes 73
  • General Bibliography 73
  • Notes 87
  • References 101
  • Notes 116
  • References 117
  • Part III - Repetition and Dropout: Measurement and Programs 119
  • Note 140
  • References 140
  • Notes 150
  • References 150
  • Notes 161
  • References 161
  • Bibliography 174
  • Part IV - Decentralization 177
  • Bibliography 199
  • General References 209
  • Notes 225
  • General References 226
  • Part V - Curriculum 227
  • Bibliography 244
  • Bibliography 255
  • Part VI - Teaching Conditions: Training and Salaries 263
  • Notes 275
  • References 275
  • General References 289
  • Note 299
  • General References 300
  • Notes 307
  • Biblography 307
  • Part VII - Conclusion 309
  • About the Editors and Contributors 317
  • Index 325
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