Schooling for Success: Preventing Repetition and Dropout in Latin American Primary Schools

By Laura Randall; Joan B. Anderson | Go to book overview
4.
The rates of participation are estimated as follows: of the population in the age group relevant to the level, it is determined if the level was completed or if it is currently attended (this defines the column "studying," and corresponds to the traditional estimation of rates of participation). The column labeled "not studying" refers to the population in the age group who completed the previous level, but are not studying now. In addition, the population in the relevant group that did not complete the preceding level is identified as an estimation that is not often made, but that in our opinion defines a very important dimension of educational backwardness.
5.
A more precise calculation of these rates of exclusion from primary education should include the relative correction of the difference between the date of the census survey and the beginning of the school year, given that the rule of SEP indicates that only children who are at least six years old can enroll. The rates in the seven to twelve year group decrease, but continue the trends shown here. It was decided, however, to maintain the calculation based on the conventional national and international age groups.
6.
Post-basic education shows even lower levels of distribution in the country and maintains the tendencies of regional differences shown for basic education. Only in the capital are more than half of young people attending higher middle school and around one-quarter receiving higher education, in relation to the respective age groups of between sixteen and nineteen years and between twenty and twenty-four. For a more extensive discussion of this result, see Bracho ( 1998).
7.
Currently SEP is developing tests of educational achievement and competencies. It is known that there are achievement tests used by SEP (see the results reported in Palafox et al. 1994), as well as others that are applied to evaluating the achievement of teachers -- Carrera Magisterial -- however, they are not available to researchers and are only accessible to those involved in educational planning.
8.
Currently, SEP estimates terminal efficiency, taking as a base only the enrollment of new entry to first grade (that is, without taking into account for the calculation those individuals that repeat the grade), with which the estimation of terminal efficiency reaches 80 percent for this cycle. Table 10.3 presents both.
19.
In addition, information disaggregated to the state level can be problematic, as is shown in a recent study on educational financing within a federalist framework ( Latapi and Ulloa 1997).
10.
The study by Lustig ( 1991) is an excellent source for analyzing the economic restructuring during the decade of the 1980s and its impact on financing social needs. For a reference specifically on the impact on the educational system, see Padua ( 1994).

References

Bracho, Teresa. 1995. "Gasto privado en educación. México 1984-1992." Revista Mexicana de Sociologia 57, no. 2 (April-June).

-----. 1995. "Distribución y desigualdad educativa. en México." Estudios Sociologicos 13, no. 37.

-----. 1997. "La exlusión de la educación bisica. Decisiones familiares sobre escolarización." Working Paper, CIDE. Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economica.

-----. 1998. "México desde la perspectiva regional. Perfil educativo de sus adultos y tendencias de escolarización de sus niños." Working Paper, no. 68 CIDE.

Bracho, Teresa, and Andrés Zamudio. 1994. "Los redimientos económicos de la escolaridad en México, 1989." Economia Mexicana 3, no. 2.

-----. 1997. "El gasto familiar en educación. México 1992." Revista Mexicana de Investigación Educativa 2, no. 4, segundo semestre.

-117-

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Schooling for Success: Preventing Repetition and Dropout in Latin American Primary Schools
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Tables and Graphs ix
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Part I - Introduction and Overview 1
  • References 22
  • Notes 31
  • References 31
  • References 42
  • Note 50
  • General References 51
  • References 59
  • Part II - Basic Education Systems 61
  • Notes 73
  • General Bibliography 73
  • Notes 87
  • References 101
  • Notes 116
  • References 117
  • Part III - Repetition and Dropout: Measurement and Programs 119
  • Note 140
  • References 140
  • Notes 150
  • References 150
  • Notes 161
  • References 161
  • Bibliography 174
  • Part IV - Decentralization 177
  • Bibliography 199
  • General References 209
  • Notes 225
  • General References 226
  • Part V - Curriculum 227
  • Bibliography 244
  • Bibliography 255
  • Part VI - Teaching Conditions: Training and Salaries 263
  • Notes 275
  • References 275
  • General References 289
  • Note 299
  • General References 300
  • Notes 307
  • Biblography 307
  • Part VII - Conclusion 309
  • About the Editors and Contributors 317
  • Index 325
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