Mexico is a federal country with thirty-one states and one Federal District ( Mexico
City, the national capital). Within the states, there are over 2,500 municipalities.
This chapter is based on case study work in Gershberg ( 1996b), which provides
details on the methodology used to formulate many of the insights and assertions made
Basic education refers to preschool, primary, and secondary school levels. The
NAMBE also included initial, indigenous, and normal schooling. Only teachers and administrators in the National Council for Educational Development (CONAFE, the federal
compensatory program targeting isolated communities) and the Federal District remained
officially employed by the federal Government.
Remember that the 1990-91 time period is really a comparison between the 1990-91
and 1991-92 school years; therefore it is the time period immediately before the May
In addition, all these data have computation problems because neither the SEP nor
the SEEs can track individual students. For instance, one could see enrollment rates of
over 100 percent (because of students being left back or migrating between states); the
terminal efficiency rate suffers similarly.
Gershberg, A. I. 1998a. "Decentralization and Recentralization: Lessons from the Social
Sectors in Mexico and Nicaragua," OCE Working Paper Series, WP-379. Washington,
DC: Inter-American Development Bank. August 1998.
-----. 1998b. "Decentralization, Recentralization and Performance Accountability:
Building an Operationally Useful Framework for Analysis," Development Policy Review, vol. 16, no. 4: pp. 405-431.
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). 1994. Economic and Social Progress in Latin
America: 1994 Report. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank, October.
SEP. 1994 Indicadores Educativos: 1988-1989 a 1994-1995. Mexico, D.F.: SEP.
-----. 1996. Compendio Estadistico del Gasto Educativo, 1995. Mexico City: SEP,
Gershberg, Alec Ian. 1995. "Fiscal Decentralization and Intergovernmental Relations: An
Analysis of Federal Versus State Education Finance in Mexico." Review of Urban and
Regional Development Studies 7, no. 2 (July).
-----. 1996b. "Case Study Report: Mexican Educational Decentralization 1992-1996." Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank, RE2/SO2. October 20. Mimeo.
Peterson, George E. 1994. "Decentralization in Latin America: An Overview of Lessons
and Issues." Washington, DC: World Bank, LATAD, May. Mimeo.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Schooling for Success:Preventing Repetition and Dropout in Latin American Primary Schools.
Contributors: Laura Randall - Editor, Joan B. Anderson - Editor.
Publisher: M. E. Sharpe.
Place of publication: Armonk, NY.
Publication year: 1999.
Page number: 226.
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