Social Aspects of Industry: A Survey of Labor Problems and Causes of Industrial Unrest

By S. Howard Patterson | Go to book overview
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the decade between 1901 and 1910 southern and eastern Europe furnished almost 70 per cent of our immigrants.The problem of immigration presents social, economic, and political phases. From an economic point of view immigration presents the problem of an industrial competition between different standards of living. Although it has played an important part in the industrial development of the United States, immigration has tended to lower the wages of American unskilled labor. The social problem of immigration is represented by the difficulty of assimilating and Americanizing our foreign immigrants.The population of the United States is not entirely Caucasian. There are a few Indians, but this problem is chiefly historical. On the other hand, about 10,000,000 of our population are Negroes. Although located principally in the agricultural South, there has been a considerable migration within recent years of the southern Negro to the industrial cities of the North. There are also a few thousand Mongolians, Japanese, and Chinese, on our western coast. Differences of race and in standards of living prompted the United States to adopt a policy of exclusion toward the Chinese in 1882 and toward the Japanese in 1925.Early immigration to the United States was regulated neither as to quantity nor quality. In the closing years of the past century, however, numerous laws were passed to keep out undesirables. During the period of the World War, America passed from the regulation of immigration to the restrictions of immigration. The literacy test was added to the existing restrictions as to contract labor and as to the possession of a certain amount of money. In 1921 a quota system was imposed which limited European immigration in a given year to 3 per cent of that of a given nationality in the United States according to the census of 1910. In 1924 the rate was further reduced to 2 per cent and the basis changed to the census of 1890. A "national origins" plan for the determination of immigration quotas is now in effect.
Collateral Reading
ADAMS T. S. and SUMNER H. L., "Labor Problems", chap. 3.
BOUCKE O. F., "Principles of Economics", vol. 2, chap. 20.
BYE R. T., "Principles of Economics", chap. 3.
BYE R. T. and HEWETT W. W., "Applied Economics", chap. 10
CARLTON F. T., "The History and Problems of Organized Labor", chap. 12.
FAIRCHILD F. R., FURNISS E. S., and BUCK N. S., "Elementary Economics", chaps. 42 and 43.
FEWER F. A., "Modern Economic Problems", chap. 24.
HAMILTON W., "Current Economic Problems", pp. 480-545.
LESCOHIEN D., "Immigration and the Labor Supply", Atlantic Monthly, April, 1919.
TAUSSIG F. W., "Principles of Economics", chaps. 53 and 54.
WATKINS G. S., "Introduction to the Study of Labor Problems", chap. 13.

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