CONTENTS
Introduction
I. FRANKLIN'S INTEREST IN ITALY 1

Franklin's interest in Italy unappreciated. Miscellaneous evidence. Polenta, cabbage turnip, and macaroni. Italian sayings. The writers: Machiavelli, Campanella, Petrarch, Ariosto, Dante. Acquaintance with the Italian language. Franklin's desire to visit Italy. His personal library.

Scientist
II. ERIPUIT COELO FULMEN 17

Enthusiastic reception of Franklin's electrical principles. Circumstances in Italy favorable to the adoption of his ideas. The first Franklinists. Symmer and the reaction. Fortune of the lightning rod. Medical electricity. Personal relations with Italian electrologists. Ancients and Moderns. The wane of Franklin the electrologist.

III. A SCIENTIFIC FRIENDSHIP: GIAMBATISTA BECCARIA 49

Beccaria champions Franklin against Nollet. The backgrounds of Beccaria's "handsome defence." Franklin's judgments on Beccaria's early work. The subsequent correspondence. Effects of the exchange. Italian opinion on the relations between Franklin and Beccaria.

IV. THE MINOR INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 71

The emergence of the "many-sided" Franklin. Carlo Giuseppe Campi and the first Franklinian scientific miscellany. The minor works and the encyclopedic journals. The Italian fortune of particular ideas and inventions. Pietro Antoniutti's miscellanies and their significance. The academies.

Statesman
V. THE PRACTICAL DIPLOMAT 93

Franklin as American representative and the European setting. His relations with the Italian ambassadors in Paris. Reactions to his arrival. The problem of recognition. Franklin's war of propaganda in the dispatches of the ambassadors. The Abbé Niccoli. First attempts at diplomatic relations between the colonies and Italy: the missions of Izard and Mazzei and Franklin's obstructionism. Franklin's role in early negotiations. His departure.

-ix-

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